AN EXAMINATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS REQUIRED OF PRINCIPALS IN ORDER TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Because of the difficulties that the Directorate of Inspection was experiencing, principals were tasked with the responsibility of instructional oversight inside the schools. Several commissions on education have examined and given suggestions on how to enhance and maintain high-quality education in various contexts. The commissions suggested that instructional supervision be carried out in the schools by competent and experienced employees who have been trained in this area. In addition to their many other obligations, school administrators have been compelled to supervise instructional activities in their respective schools. In order to attain the educational objectives, principals have been lawfully entrusted with the responsibility of governing their schools. Instructional oversight necessitates that principals concentrate their efforts primarily on the teaching staff who are responsible for directly implementing curriculum via instruction. As a result, principals should provide particular attention to instructional monitoring in the course of their responsibilities.
Administration in schools is very essential, and as a consequence, only those teachers who have been taught, qualified, experienced, and who have shown high levels of professional integrity are promoted to the position of principle. The instructional supervision actions of the principal assist each kid in achieving his or her own level of academic achievement in school. The goal of instructional supervision is to increase the quality of teaching by enhancing the abilities of instructors, which in turn will improve the academic performance of students in the classroom. Principals have been tasked with overseeing instructional activities on behalf of the Quality Assurance Standards Officers (QASOs) in their respective districts. The tasks include enhancing teaching and learning; designing supervisory tactics; implementing improvement strategies; maintaining the school system; improving curriculum and library resources; assessing students’ progress and timetabling; and reviewing students’ progress and scheduling (Okumbe, 2003).
In addition to inspecting teachers’ classroom work and analyzing their overall performance based on students’ academic progress, administrators also serve as supervisors from time to time. Principals are also tasked with the responsibility of enhancing the academic and professional standing of teachers by providing them with contemporary curricular materials and in-service training. Principals are supposed to offer the appropriate levels of motivation and stimulation for their staff and students in order to improve academic performance. In place of the old tactics of control and authoritarianism, they are to utilize supervisor-teacher-friendly ways that benefit both parties (Wenzare, 2012). Teachers’ morale is lowered as a result of conventional inspection procedures, which engender dread in them (Republic of Kenya,1965). It is consequently essential that administrators serve as sources of motivation for instructors and their pupils. The ability of a principal to supervise instruction is critical to the advancement of quality education in any school and to helping students to achieve success in their academics and other areas of life. Many stakeholders have emphasized the importance of instructional monitoring, and administrators are increasingly being held responsible for the outcomes of their pupils as a consequence of this trend (Zepda, 2003). While poor performance is being recorded in schools, principals are expected to make a change in students’ academic achievement via instructional monitoring while they are in their positions. While numerous research have been conducted on instructional supervision, only a small number of studies have been conducted on the link between the variable and students’ academic progress in the classroom. The stakeholders are becoming more aware of the need for schools to be held responsible for the outcomes of the pupils they are entrusting with their care and attention. This is putting pressure on principals to enhance the quality of instruction in their schools. This kind of pressure encourages administrators to be enthusiastic about providing good instructional supervision in order to increase students’ academic achievement. In order for children to achieve academic achievement, principals must pay close attention to instructional leadership activities that result in good education and instruction that is effective. Principals must link administrative responsibilities and procedures to one another via a well-established program of supervision that helps to tie together the many activities that contribute to the attainment of school objectives. The description of supervision as the “glue” that keeps a good school together by Glickman et al (2010) is accurate. As a consequence of its binding action, it serves as a sensory system for the school and as the lifeblood of the institution. The factors linked to principals and their duties as instructional supervisors have been the primary focus of the research thus far. Others have conducted study on instructional supervision activities as well as the enhancement of instructors’ class-level teaching. However, research in this subject have neglected to include the variable of the pupils who are the receivers of the principal’s instructional supervision activities in their analyses. The research will not be complete until the academic accomplishment of the students is taken into consideration, since teaching is merely a means to a goal, which is the academic achievement of the students. When addressing instructional supervision, it is important to include the academic accomplishment of students since it offers a reflection of the quality of the activities that have been provided. Students’ poor academic performance raises the question of whether or not instructional monitoring has a favorable impact on the students’ academic performance. Therefore, this research investigates the administrative abilities necessary of principals in order to assure the proper administration of educational institutions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the fact that the Ministry of Education is concentrating on strengthening the monitoring of teaching in schools, there is still much more work to be done. Poor student performance in secondary schools, according to informal discussions among residents of Akure South local government area and associated study results, seems to be the consequence of inefficient monitoring of instructors by administrators(Cooley & Shen 2011). According to the stakeholders, pupils at secondary schools in Akure South perform badly as a consequence of inefficient principal supervision. This assertion has not been proven. But the fact that many students do badly in their tests is a truth that must be acknowledged. Instructor supervision is intended to assist instructors in developing their professional abilities and approaches in order to help students learn more effectively and achieve higher levels of performance. As previously said, instructional monitoring in schools is intended to improve teacher teaching and, as a result, improve the academic achievement of pupils. According to the Ministry of Education, the purpose of this practice is to improve the quality of education and, as a result, to help students achieve success in their studies. A lack of academic accomplishment raises questions about whether or not a principal’s instructional supervising abilities are effective in the classroom. Students’ academic progress is intended to increase as a result of the competent supervision provided by principals, who are required to motivate, stimulate, and consult with instructors. Ondo state secondary education board (OEB), in collaboration with the organization of principals of secondary schools, organizes seminars and in-service training for principals with the aim of preparing them to act as instructional supervisors in the classroom. With these initiatives in place, it would seem acceptable, if not absolutely essential, to question why pupils in public secondary schools in Akure South continue to do so badly in terms of academic performance and achievement. Some researches have discovered that principals spend less than a third of their time in supervision (Cooley & Shen 2011) and that principals spend less than a third of their time in administration (Cooley & Shen 2011). (Goodwin, Cunningham & Childress, 2012). It has been stated that they spend just 20% of their time visiting classrooms, doing curriculum-related tasks, and participating in staff development. The activities of instructional supervision and instruction that principals are expected to do in their schools are explicitly defined by the Ministry of Education. Due to the low rate at which secondary school students achieve academic success, administrators are obligated to prioritize instructional supervision activities as the primary priority in their performance of their responsibilities in this area.
There is no evidence to support the efficacy of instructional supervision in secondary schools despite the fact that principals have been educated and equipped to serve in this capacity. There is no explanation for why the vast majority of pupils continue to do so badly when there are principals who have been taught and who possess the requisite knowledge and abilities in monitoring. Instructional supervision at a school is supposed to have an impact on the instruction of students by instructors, ultimately resulting in improved academic success for the students under supervision. But little is known about instructional supervision and how it affects the academic progress of students in general. Sturge and colleagues (2014) investigated research papers, publications, and texts for their results; however, this study gathered data from relevant respondents in order to reach its conclusions. The academic accomplishment of the pupils was not addressed, and as a result, it was designated as the dependent variable in the present research. The researchers concentrated on instructional supervisory techniques, however they were unable to identify the ultimate outcome or goal of the procedures. Instructional supervision is merely a means to an end: it does not guarantee academic success for pupils. This study therefore examined the administrative skills required of principals in order to ensure effective management of schools.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Generally, the objective of this study is to examine the administrative skills required of principals in order to ensure effective management of schools.
- To examine the effect of principals good administrative skills on the management of Secondary School.
- To evaluate how principal’s effective management of Secondary School affects students academic performance.
- To find out the challenges principals face in carrying out their supervisory duty in other for effective management.
- To recommend ways principals can improve their supervisory skills.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions have been prepared for this study
- What are the effect of principals good administrative skills on the management of Secondary School?
- How can principal’s effective management of Secondary School affects students academic performance?
- What are the challenges principals face in carrying out their supervisory duty in other for effective management?
- What are the recommended ways principals can improve their supervisory skills?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study is will be significant to principals reinforce those supervisory activities that positively influence student’s academic achievement.
The study will also be significant to the Ministry of Education (MOE) on areas that require attention particularly during the formulation of policies relating to internal supervision in schools. APSS would further use the study to improve their in-service programs for principals and teachers for better students’ academic performance. The challenges that principals face while carrying out instructional supervision would also be known and be addressed by APSS.
The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine the effect of principals good administrative skills on the management of Secondary School. The study will also evaluate how principal’s effective management of Secondary School affects students academic performance. The study will further find out the challenges principals face in carrying out their supervisory duty in other for effective management. Lastly, the study will recommend ways principals can improve their supervisory skills. Hence this study will be delimited to Akure South local government area.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Administrative skills: those related to running a business or keeping an office organized, and are needed for a variety of jobs, ranging from office assistants to secretaries to office managers
Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people