1.1 Background to the study

Education is the most important tool for change and resource development. It entails much more than merely receiving facts and instruction in a classroom. The true purpose of education is to transmit ideas and principles that should be internalized. According to the National Policy on Education, the Federal Government considers education to be a means of fostering creativity, self-reliance and mental independence, a patriotic vision, and liberation from mental colonization (2004 edition).

The aforementioned basic educational challenges are not specific to Nigeria or the 20th century. People who are interested in educational development have been responding to the ever-intriguing questions about education in a world that is changing quickly thanks to its sophisticated and complex educational phenomena.

Over verbalization is a common accusation made against teachers. This refers to using excessive language to convey ideas. Unfortunately, many teachers often fail to notice whether or not their students are actually understanding and enjoying what they are saying because they are so entranced by the sound of their own voices. The problem is that many professors speak incessantly without having anything to say. Some people prefer to “speak at” their students as opposed to “talk with” them. Because of this, they speak in spite of students’ nonverbal cues that they are bored or even lost. Thanks to the development of modern technology, teachers no longer have to rely solely on words to convey their message. We have access to a variety of materials that can be used to create our

more vivid and captivating message. These resources could be of four different types, according to Stella, Abeke, and Abiodun: natural, human, material, and institutional (2000). These things, also known as instructional materials, are used to support or supplement the work of the teachers.

Some educationists define instructional materials as “any item brought into the classroom for the purpose of lesson presentation to support or facilitate the teacher’s teaching effort and help the occurrence of learning in the pupils (students)” (Akande 2002).

Ajelabi (2002) defined instructional materials as “a collection of teaching-learning resources that constitute an intrinsic component of an instructional process and are used to convey educational content to the learners.” According to Akinleye (1997), many educational technologists view instructional

materials as tools, equipment, and resources used in educational settings to support spoken and written language in the transmission of knowledge, skills, concepts, and values. According to him, they are also items or objects that are used to emphasize clarity, support, and vitalize the teachers’ lessons. These definitions state that they are connected by a string. In other words, educational materials support and complete the traditional teaching method. According to Ajelabi, they range from the incredibly basic and inexpensive chalkboard, flat graphics, diagrams, drawings, and maps to the more complex and pricey television, mini-projectors, slides, and filmstrip projectors (2000).

All of this suggests that effective school instruction is based on the foundation of instructional materials. Teaching is not effective without them. Almost all occupations require the use of materials in order to complete their tasks successfully. The teaching profession is no exception. However, simply having these resources does not guarantee effective communication or education. Their effectiveness in improving learning is due to careful selection and skillful application by teachers. It is also critical for instructors to become familiar with the various types of instructional resources available, as well as the benefits that can be gained from their effective use, particularly in the beginning. Teachers must also be familiar with how to use them properly. Teachers must also be well-versed in the selection and evaluation criteria.

assessing them, as well as the concepts that underpin their effective usage. Although instructional resources are necessary for effective teaching and learning, they are scarce in our institutions. “In the 1970s, Nigeria experienced economic prosperity, making it possible for schools to purchase specific instructional materials for teaching,” Stella, Abeke, and Abiodun (2000) wrote in Teaching Effectiveness in Nigerian Schools. In light of the current economic downturn and the high cost of resources, teachers must be resourceful and creative.

According to the above remark, the government and schools in Nigeria have been unable to provide the necessary number of instructional resources in schools due to the current economic downturn. A trip to a few of the community’s

Schools are required to demonstrate this. “There were decaying houses…. The premises were filthy,” observed Onyene (2005) during such a visit. There was no duster in several classrooms. The majority of teachers did not use teaching materials in their classrooms. There were no visual aids to help with instruction. The solution, according to Abiodun et al. (2000), is for instructors to be inventive and innovative. To meet this challenge, teachers will have to improvise. The most important question is, what exactly is improv?

Improvisation is simply the process of devising alternatives or substitutes for pre-made items. It entails replacing locally available and easily accessible resources with factory-made ones (Adesanya 2000). “What happens in the country should not be allowed to continue.”

be used to justify a decrease in teacher productivity,” according to the above description and previous statements about the Nigerian economy. According to the Nigerian Educator Times, teachers must improve educational materials (2004). As a result, the goal of this study is to look into the prevalence and types of improvisation in Lagos State schools.

1.2 Problem Propositions

Although many educators recognize the importance of teaching resources, they are in short supply in Nigerian classrooms. When it comes to providing essential educational resources, the government falls short of its obligations, resulting in a problem with insufficient instructional materials in schools. Furthermore, the government makes no concerted effort to

Make available appropriate training programs that encourage alternative-improvisation.

Ogunranti (2001) also points out that “some educational administrators’ unfavorable attitude toward the provision of instructional aids (materials) for use in schools appears to have exacerbated this indifference.” Other challenges he identified that work against the integration of instructional materials with classroom instructional procedures in Nigeria include insufficient funds to equip schools, instructional materials being overlooked in curriculum preparation, and a lack of adequately-trained staff.

As a result, the goal of this research is to determine the breadth and types of educational materials being improved by everyone and found in the school system.

1.3 The Study’s Objective

The goal of this research is to:

i. Examine the scope and types

of government-provided educational materials

ii. Determine the extent and types of instructional materials that teachers use with their students;

iii. investigate the impact of instructional materials usage in the teaching and learning environment;

iv. Investigate the extent and types of instructional materials that can be improved by the school administration;

v. Investigate the extent and types of instructional materials that students and parents can improve.

1.4 Research Issues

The following research questions will be addressed by this study:

i. How far has the government gone in providing instructional materials to schools in Lagos State?

ii. How well have school administrators responded to improvisation of instructional materials in Lagos State secondary schools?


What kinds of instructional materials do students contribute to the improvement of?

iv. To what extent do students contribute to the development of instructional materials?

v. To what extent do teachers in your school improve instructional materials?

vi. What kinds of instructional materials are available in your school?

1.5 Importance of the research

The findings of this study are intended to provide useful information for improving relevant educational materials.

For one thing, improvisation fosters creativity. Teachers, teachers, and students will all benefit from this. As a result of this research, they will be more resourceful, which will give them confidence in manipulating materials successfully.

The government will benefit as well, because it will realize that improvisation is a permanent solution.

to the importation of instructional materials. Imported instructional materials may be too expensive for the government and most institutions due to the current exchange rate. Improving these components, on the other hand, is a more cost-effective option. The majority of the necessary supplies are readily available. We can get them using the resources in our neighborhood. Natural, human, material, and institutional resources are the four types of resources that can be used as instructional materials (Abiodun et al 2000)

Furthermore, curriculum designers will learn from this research that rather than importing teaching aids, they should encourage the use of indigenous teaching aids created through improvisation. The majority of imported instructional materials are intended for a different cultural context due to the implications of cultural differences. As a result of this,

Because background experience and examples in such materials vary from one location to the next, they may not fully meet the teachers’ goals.

Finally, due to ill-trained or insufficient personnel, maintaining imported instructional materials may present some difficulties. Using improvised local teaching resources, on the other hand, may not require as much knowledge because the end users are familiar with the materials.

1.6 The Study’s Scope

This study will focus on ten secondary schools chosen from three local government areas in Lagos state. The following are some examples:

1.7 Term Definitions

Improvisation: The process by which teachers, students, or school administrators create teaching materials to supplement the written and spoken activities of the teachers.

Over-verbalization is the excessive use of words to express oneself.

convey meaning. During a teaching and learning situation in which the teachers continue to speak without guiding the students.

Talk with: the inverse of ‘talk at.’ The teaching will be interactive between the teacher and the students in this situation.



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