The phrase “critical point” is occasionally used to refer to a material’s vapour-liquid critical point. The vapour-liquid point is the temperature at which no distinguishing liquid or gas phases exist.

The goal of the project, which is to build a critical temperature measuring equipment, is to measure critical point substances and determine their liquid-vapour critical temperature and pressure for a given substance.

The first chapter of this project covered a general overview of sensors as well as different types of temperature measurement sensors. The project’s goals and objectives, as well as its scope and limitations, are also described.

The second chapter of this study provided a broad overview of persons who have effectively contributed to temperature technical improvement in the past and now.



A sensor is a device that detects and converts a physical quantity into a signal that can be read by an observer or instrument. A mercury-in-glass thermometer, for example, turns observed temperature into liquid expansion and contraction, which can be viewed on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple transforms temperature into an output voltage that a voltmeter can read. All sensors must be calibrated to known standards for accuracy.

A sensor is a device that receives a signal or stimulus and responds to it. A property or quantity that needs to be transformed into electrical form is referred to as “stimulus” in this context.

As a result, a sensor is a device that receives a signal and changes it to an electrical form that can be used by electronic equipment.

The sensitivity of a sensor is defined as how much the sensor’s output mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1°C. Sensitivities for sensors that measure very small changes by changes must be quite high. Sensors have an effect on the things they measure; for example, a room temperature thermometer dipped into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the thermometer heats the liquid. Sensors must be designed to have a minimal impact on what is being measured; reducing the sensor smaller frequently improves this and may also provide additional benefits.

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