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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEM IN A TWO STOREY BUILDING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF PROBLEM

Safety systems include fire detection systems. They continuously monitor rooms and buildings for signs of a fire outbreak and issue an immediate alarm if one happens.

Both the British Factory Acts 1961 and the Officers Shops and Railway Premises Acts 1963 stipulated that there must be a clear and audible warning throughout the building in the event of a fire. In addition, an earlier statutory requirement (section 36[7] of the factories Acts 1937) states that in any factory, hospital, market place, home, or other place where more than 20 people are employed, there should be effective provision for giving a fire warning signal that is clearly audible throughout the building.

STRUCTURE OF THE PROBLEM

The alarm is sounded locally (visually and audibly) to alert internal auxiliary personnel (e.g., the works fire department) and tell them of the fire’s location. A control center organizes the alarm, that is, it makes operational aids for firefighting measures available and immediately activates fire protection equipment. Each particular case fore detection system must be adjusted to the geographical and operating requirements, and must be installed in line with the necessary rules.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

There have been severe fire outbreaks in the previous and current years, each of which has resulted in the destruction of goods and work worth millions of naira. A fire broke out in the NITEL Exchange building in Apapa and Ikeja, both in Lagos, in the last few months, destroying items worth roughly N2.5 million.

The individuals involved, as well as the country at large, are always frustrated, insecure, and disheartened when a fire breaks out.

 

As a result of this realization, we developed the idea of developing a fire alarm system, which will inform security or fire service personnel in the event of a fire.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

Fire alarm systems are made up of two primary components:

(a) The fire alarm system in the public area.

 

b) A home-based fire alarm system.

 

Dedicated lines connect the public fire alarm boxes to the fire station. These alarm boxes also have the capability of automatically forwarding calls from private fire detection systems to the fire station. Private fire alarm detection systems are utilized to keep an eye on a few select properties. Offices and business premises, industrial and commercial undertakings, theatres, cinemas, department stores, schools, old people’s homes, hospitals, and hotels are among the places where they are installed.

The control centre, including its power supply (mains equipment and battery), with the main functions of indication control, activating alarms, and system management, the alarm units connected through call circuits, the monitored and unmonitored lines for controlling the local alarm and information equipment, the fire protection equipment, and the circuit to the fire brigade, are all part of a fire detection system.

Automatic fire detectors and press bottom alarm boxes are two types of fire alarm equipment. On the basis of these, we focused on the shape and type of a fire alarm system that will achieve the intended effect. A thorough investigation was carried out into topics such as component selection, portability, durability, cost effectiveness, and, of course, engineering efficiency.

We also did our best to verify that the circuit wiring complied with established standards in terms of electrical installation requirements, rules, and regulations.

The sensory unit of a fire alarm system is best placed in corridors, rooms, bathrooms, or any other strategic location where a fire outbreak is likely. Because of the thermal characteristics of some of the relay components, the sensory unit of the system should be kept at a safe distance from the kitchen. However, if installed in the kitchen, it should be well protected from the heat generated by the kitchen and placed at least 1.5 meters above the floor to keep children out of reach.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

It is hoped that the fire alarm device will be effective in reducing fire outbreaks in residences, offices, hospitals, restaurants, markets, and service centers.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SWITCH

MECHANICAL SWITCH TYPES

(a) Bottom-up switch

b) Toggle switch and slide switch

Micro switch (c)

d) Water valve

e) Relay (electromagnetic)

(f) Turn on the switch

FUSE

A fuse is a device that opens a circuit by using a conductor that is designed to meet when there is an excessive amount of current flowing through it. The fuse is made up of all of the components that make up the entire gadget. Fuse comes in three varieties.

(a) Fuse that can be rewired

Catridge fuses (b)

d) Fuse with a high breaking capacity (HRC).

CONDUCTOR

This is a gadget or material that has a low resistance to current flow. A conductor must possess the following qualities:

(a) Electrical resistance is low.

 

(b) Mechanically robust and adaptable

 

(c) Affordably priced

CABLE

A cable is made up of a long insulated single conductor (solid or stranded) or two or more similar conductors that are laid up together, each with its own insulation. The following are the basic components of cable:

The conductor (a)

Insulator (b)

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