INFLUENCE OF PARENTING MODEL ON SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF ADOLESCENT’S IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CALABAR, CROSS RIVERS STATE
1.1 Background of the study
The child’s first experiences are formed at home, which serves as the primary and primary institution of learning. The type of experience gained here serves as a solid foundation upon which other socialization agencies outside the family may later develop. A good home gives the child a sense of stability, as well as love and mutual respect among family members, acceptance, sharing responsibilities, and pride in one’s parents and home (Fayombo, 2004). Parenting is a complex activity that involves a number of actions that work together and separately to influence a child’s outcomes. Baumrind (1967) defines a parenting model as “patterns or configurations of parental activity” in Gonzalez et al. (2002). According to Kordi (2010), parenting styles are a psychological concept.
That represents traditional parenting techniques. As difficult and challenging as child rearing is, the work and problems it entails are far from over, especially as children reach adulthood. In today’s society, difficulties are inextricably linked to the shape and function of the family. Parenting is one of the most difficult and important tasks that an adult must perform. The manner in which parents raise their children influences their behavior and personality (Blondin & Cochran, 2011). Among the outcomes that the three parenting models may predict are social competence, academic achievement, psychosocial development, problem behavior (Attaway, 2004), optimism, confidence, motivation, and attention difficulties (Kordi & Baharudin, 2010). Parenting styles influence cognitive development, social skills, and adjustment.
Many psychologists are curious about social adjustment. This is the result of social development. It is an important indicator of psychological well-being. The most important aspect of one’s development is social growth, which is gained through one’s relationships with others, especially with parents, classmates, and teachers, and it is the criterion for evaluating social growth in terms of a person’s adjustment to himself and others. If the individual does not make the necessary changes, he or she will be unable to meet many of his or her basic needs. If a person is not socially acceptable, he will feel isolated. The parenting style employed by the parents influences how successfully a child adjusts socially. Parenting influences teenage children’s academic performance in the same way that it influences adults. their social adjustment. Previous research has shown that parents’ parenting styles lay important foundations for their children’s development and success. According to Jacobs and Hartup (2013), one of the most important factors in a student’s academic success is the parenting model. The parenting paradigm, according to Spera (2005), emphasizes parents’ responses to their children and the methods they use to compel compliance from their children. Baumrind (2005) divided parenting styles into two categories: attentiveness and demandingness. According to Baumrind, responsiveness refers to the extent to which parents encourage their children’s self-expression and uniqueness by demonstrating concern for and acceptance of their wishes. Kindness, self-sufficiency, and logical interaction are all examples of acceptance and care. Demandingness refers to the expectations that parents have for their children. in order for their children to be accepted into society (Baumrind, 2005). The expectations are enforced by watching and regulating the children’s behavior, as well as communicating the demands directly to them. There are three types of child-rearing demands and responses: authoritarian, democratic, and permissive. Each of these parenting styles represents a distinct set of parental beliefs, practices, and behavior, as well as a balanced approach to responsiveness and demand. In an authoritarian home, parents play a dominant role in defining the standards of behavior that must be followed. These parents create well-organized and structured environments with clear rules. The democratic parenting pattern involves teenagers being consulted on family issues and parents providing warmth, love, and support.
They give their children autonomy while still setting limits and being demanding. Permissive parents, on the other hand, delegate the majority of authority to their children, imposing few, if any, restrictions and consistently enforcing them. When it comes to running the house, they are inefficient and chaotic (Fayombo 2004).
1.2 Research problem statement
Parenting models are influenced by a variety of factors. Parents, counselors, and schools have a genuine and long-standing interest in learning about and addressing the numerous issues affecting the social adjustment of secondary school students. Failures, rebellious attitudes, indiscipline, and other issues, as well as student maladjustment, are becoming more common in our Calabar senior secondary schools. This is because, in today’s world, schools must deal with a variety of challenges.
A large number of students are culturally illiterate or economically disadvantaged. In most cases, a lack of educational and recreational resources in childhood, an authoritarian parenting style, and a permissive attitude of parents have not provided a motivating foundation for well-balanced social interaction and academic success. The students are becoming increasingly inept and disengaged from school activities. This study will focus on the impact of parenting models on adolescent social adjustment in senior secondary schools in Calabar, Cross Rivers State.
1.3 The study’s objectives
The study’s primary goal is as follows:
1. To investigate what social adjustment entails in the development of an adolescent.
2. To discover how parenting styles influence social behavior.
Adolescent adjustment in senior secondary schools.
3. To investigate how the parenting model can be improved in order to aid adolescent social adjustment in secondary school.
1.4 Hypothesis of research
For the study, the following hypotheses have been developed:
H01: Parenting style has no effect on adolescent social adjustment in senior secondary schools.
H1: Parenting style influences adolescent social adjustment in senior secondary schools.
H02: The parenting model cannot be improved in order to aid adolescent social adjustment in secondary school.
H1: The parenting model can be improved in order to aid adolescent social adjustment in secondary school.
1.5 Importance of the research
The importance of this study cannot be overstated because:
The impact of parenting models will be investigated in this study.
on adolescent social adjustment in senior secondary schools in Calabar, Cross Rivers State
The research findings will undoubtedly provide much needed information to government organizations, parents, the ministry of education, and academia.
1.6 The Study’s Scope
This study will look at the impact of parenting models on adolescent social adjustment in senior secondary schools in Calabar, Cross Rivers State. As a result, selected secondary schools in Calabar will serve as case studies.
1.7 Research limitations
A number of factors hampered this study, which are as follows:
just like any other research, from a lack of needed accurate materials on the topic under study to an inability to obtain data
The researcher faced financial constraints in obtaining relevant data.
materials, as well as in the printing and collation of questionnaires
Time constraint: Another constraint is time, which makes it difficult for the researcher to shuttle between writing the research and engaging in other academic work.
1.8 Term operational definition
Influence: the ability to have an effect on someone or something’s character, development, or behavior, or the effect itself.
A parenting model is a psychological construct that represents standard child-rearing strategies used by parents.
The extent to which an individual engages in competent social behavior and adapts to the immediate social context.
Adolescence: the transition from childhood to adulthood.