QUALITY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In this age of globalization and technological advancement, education is regarded as the first step in all human endeavor. It is linked to an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living, and it plays an important role in the development of human capital (Lewis, 2002). It ensures that people obtain the knowledge and skills they require to become more productive and improve their quality of life. This increase in productivity generates new sources of income, which boosts a country’s economic growth (Saxton, 2000). Educators continue to value the quality of students’ work. It is intended to have an impact at the local, regional, national, and global levels. Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been curious about the factors that contribute to the quality of education. of a learner’s performance. These factors, both inside and outside of school, have an impact on students’ academic performance. These factors include student factors, family factors, school factors, and peer factors (Elder, 2004). The seventeenth century saw the first serious investigation into the role of these demographic variables (Mann, 1985). These characteristics include age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic position (SES), parental education level, parental occupation, language, income, and religious affiliations. Typically, these fall under the category of demographics (Ballatine, 1993). Demography is a broad field that studies the nature and consequences of demographic factors in biological and social contexts. Unfortunately, defining and evaluating educational quality is a difficult task, and the The process is complicated by shifting values of quality features linked to diverse stakeholders’ perspectives. (2006, Parri) Quality is at the top of almost every industry’s or organization’s priority list. Finding ways to improve educational quality is a critical task for any educational institution. Quality education has a significant impact on workforce development and makes important contributions. Students have the right to a high-quality education, which necessitates quality-control training for inspectors so that they can work with schools to achieve the desired level (Okunuga, 2012). Inspectors, on the other hand, collaborate with the school on performance and standards, learner welfare and participation, personal development, quality of teaching and learning, curriculum and other activities, care/guidance and support, and learning. environment, leadership and management, overall school effectiveness, what the school does well, and what the school should do to improve performance (Oyetola, 2012). As a result, to ensure that standards are met, education should be monitored and reviewed prior to, during, and after delivery. As a result, school inspection is an important tool for the government to use in ensuring that secondary schools perform well. As a result, it is critical that the School Inspectorate fulfills its responsibilities in a timely and efficient manner (CAG, 2008). Adoption of a Quality Assurance management system has grown in popularity in the administrative world. Industry quality control is no longer used; instead, quality assurance is used. The value of any educational system in the education sector is
determined by its capacity to create high-quality product (students) that can contribute to society’s progress. Thus, it is the responsibility of educational administrators to identify and resolve issues that may impede the delivery of high-quality education (John, 2014). According to Adelabu (2012), there is a widespread belief that the state of a school’s learning environment, including infrastructure, has a significant impact on instructors’ efficacy and students’ academic achievement. Classrooms, offices, libraries, labs, amenities, and other structures, as well as furniture and athletic equipment, are all required for effective teaching and learning in a school. The academic standard, which is an indicator of the school’s quality, is heavily influenced by the infrastructure and learning environment.
1.2 THE PROBLEM’S STATEMENT
The instruction To achieve any country’s educational goals, the ministry has established concepts and quality criteria. As a result, secondary schools require an adequate number of teachers, classrooms, instructional and learning materials, and other resources (Crosnoe, 2005). Aside from that, there are organizations that audit schools to ensure that they meet the quality standards outlined in the contract or the objectives for which the schools were established. Secondary school conditions such as a teacher shortage, a scarcity of teaching and learning resources, a lack of laboratories and libraries, and other quality issues make high academic achievement difficult. Many public schools lack libraries, and textbooks are in such short supply that one book can be shared by twenty students (Adelabu, 2012). As a result, the teacher is the only one who has access to information. Students with limited educational abilities may be produced as a result. Furthermore, school inspectors do not intervene in schools where there are insufficient teachers, teaching and learning materials, and other facilities. Due to a lack of qualified personnel, quality, offices and office equipment, housing, and the inspectors’ ability to take appropriate and immediate corrective measures where necessary, there is always an issue of poor academic performance among secondary school students, which is a result of not providing adequate resources or meeting the required standards (Johnson, 2007). Given the preceding scenario, there is no reason to doubt the quality-control procedures in place at those schools.
well. Research must be conducted to determine which specific quality factors influence learners’ academic performance in those schools, as well as recommendations for how quality practices can be improved in those schools, in order to determine which specific quality factors influence learners’ academic performance in those schools (Okunuga, 2012). Understanding these criteria can help policymakers and administrators improve school quality factors for better secondary education. As a result, the study’s quality was to look at the factors that influence students’ academic achievement.
1.3 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVES
The primary goal of this research is to identify the quality elements that influence the academic performance of secondary school students. The study’s specific goals are as follows:
i. Identify the factors that influence students’ academic achievement.
the impact of quality factors on secondary school students’ academic achievement.
iii. To define the quality factors techniques that schools must use in order to achieve high student academic achievement.
iv. To look into the barriers to quality education in Nigeria.
1.4 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
i.What quality factors influence students’ academic achievement?
ii. How do quality factors affect secondary school students’ academic achievement?
iii. What are the quality factors techniques that schools must employ in order to achieve high levels of student academic achievement?
What are the challenges to quality education in Nigeria?
1.5 THE STUDY’S SIGNIFICANCE
With the introduction of junior secondary school in Nigeria, all applicants are now required to attend JSS. On the other hand, their placement in JSS on the other hand, is not automatic and is based on their exam performance as well as ongoing evaluation. As a result, students’ JSS performance should be scrutinized. The current study attempted to address this issue by evaluating quality factors that influence the academic achievement of JSS students. The findings of this study will help students determine how much preparation they need for their final exam. Teachers and principals would be able to identify and prepare for their own and their students’ weaknesses. Parents will understand their children’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as the role they must play in ensuring their children receive high grades. Other stakeholders, including the Ministry of Education (MoE), will also be notified. The study’s findings will be used once more.
as the foundation for future research.
1.6 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVE
The study was conducted in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Kaduna State, which serves as the research’s case study, now has around 20 basic schools. Elementary school, as previously stated, consists of Kindergarten, primary school, and junior high school. In this study, which focused on the JSS level, only Danbo International School was used. The children’s current academic achievement was highlighted, as well as the school, student, home, and teacher factors that influence their academic achievement.
1.7 COMPLETION OF THE STUDY
According to John (2014), the researcher has control over constraints. It describes the researcher’s decisions as well as the scope and boundaries of the study. The study looked at academic achievement. Junior High School students in grades one through three. Danbo International School served as the case study, and the target audiences included instructors, JSS students, and the Headmaster.