Every society is considered to depend on communication to function. So, it is important to understand what communication entails.

No one definition is acknowledged by academics who are interested in the topic of communication because it has consistently drawn new definitions.

The study of communication, also referred to as “communicology,” encompasses a wide range of research and knowledge because it connects to all the ways humans communicate. Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, it is better to think of communication as a two-way process where ideas, emotions, and feelings are exchanged in the direction of a shared objective or course of action.

Therefore, the phone-in-programme procedure. The use of mass media in communication campaigns is crucial.

create awareness and spread knowledge. Nigeria included, most emerging nations use radio as a powerful tool to communicate with the general populace. Radio phone-in programs, as opposed to TV and print, are well-liked venues for direct audience participation to share opinions and voice concerns about issues to advance knowledge, promote candid conversation about health and other socially relevant issues, and encourage long-lasting behavioral change.

A phone-in is a type of show in broadcasting that allows listeners to make live telephone remarks that are usually in reference to a particular subject chosen for debate on the day of broadcast.

A program named “What Are They Up To Now” on BBC radio Nottingham is credited with airing the first phone-in on February 4, 1968, according to research.

Conversational Talk Radio

When UK first debuted in 1995, a large portion of its programming included phone-in programs.

Ian Hutchby examined fights and confrontations in phone-in programs to conduct study on bad relationships. Through conversation analysis, he explains how the host maintains control using strategies like “the second position”—the idea of coming in second in a conversation to give the host time to think of a response.

In a similar vein, the transmitting word is always the final word. The audience has the option to end the discussion, but in doing so, they leave the interactive space. (1996) Hutchby Talbot et al.

Even so, it is impossible to pinpoint precisely when Nigeria’s phone-in program started. Research indicates that it began in the 1980s, which is before the worldwide system for mobile telecommunications (GSM) was developed. However, There has been an upsurge in audience involvement in phone-in programs since the launch of GSM in 2000.


This innovation in broadcasting, in particular the inclusion of a phone-in section in nearly every program being broadcast on both public and private radio stations across the nation, has influenced the research work.

One of the issues is the implications of selecting the incorrect audience, which is better envisioned. The presenter would receive unfavorable comments as a result. This is due to some viewers participating in discussions that are not intended for them.

Without a doubt, radio stations serve the fundamental purpose of informing, educating, and entertaining their listeners. Another issue, meanwhile, is the allure of incorporating phone-in segments in most of the programs, which can make them seem elitist given the

how many people have the means to purchase a smartphone.

Another concern is that phone-in programs are also perceived as a way for people to escape reality and participate in programs even though they may not be fully knowledgeable about the topics at hand.


It has been observed that radio stations are increasingly using phone-ins. This research examines radio broadcasting. This choice is based on the fact that the radio set is portable and can easily pick up signals from great distances, making it the medium that looks to be the cheapest and most accessible to the average person.

The frequency of audience engagement in radio programs has increased since phone-in programs first appeared.

This study examines “Soul Mender,” a phone-in show that was created to give the people the opportunity to meaningfully weigh in on topics that were thought to directly affect them both personally and socially.

This study’s goal is to determine whether the program is justified it is there. In order to create a standard structure that could facilitate more qualitative programming, this research is being done with the goal of developing a guiding principle that could help control audience engagement on radio.


A phone-in program could be a quick approach to get feedback on any idea, policy, or measure that is about to be implemented by the current government, a business entity, an individual, or both. It is without a doubt the finest method for determining whether new concepts, viewpoints, and policies are acceptable.

This study is important since it allows for the sampling of opinions without having to go through the time-consuming voting process. This would include the listeners actively in making decisions or formulating policies.

The interactive character of phone-in programs is intended to make each individual radio listener feel a part of something larger than himself and prevent him from being a passive receiver of the news and ideas broadcast on the radio.

consequently, it is the this researcher believes that the evaluation of this phone-in program will significantly improve the quality of the production and presentation as well as make it truly audience-participatory.


To what extent has the phone-in programme “Soul Mender” on Grace FM provided the expected feedback required of the target audience?

When does a phone-in programme become important in the programmes planning of Grace FM?

How truely interactive is “Soul Mender” on Grace FM?



Option H1: To a certain extent, the Grace FM phone-in show “Soul Mender” elicits the desired feedback from the target population.
Null H0: To a certain extent, the Grace FM phone-in show “Soul Mender” fails to elicit the target audience’s desired feedback.

2. Hypothesis
Alternate H1: A phone-in program is crucial to Grace FM’s programming.
A phone-in program is not significant in Grace FM’s program planning, according to Null H0.

3. Hypothesis

Option H1: Grace FM’s “Soul Mender” is genuinely participatory.
Null H0: Grace FM’s “Soul Mender” isn’t really interactive.


IMPACT: According to oxford advanced learners’ dictionary, it is to have an immediate and strong effect on something or somebody.

IMPACT: It is the influence a phone-in programme has on the listening audience as well as the impression they are left with about the programme even after it is brought to conclusion.

PHONE-IN: According to Encarta dictionaries, it is a radio or television programme in which audience members can participate by telephone and ask questions, make contributions or take part in discussions about a particular subject with the host and any quests.

PHONE-IN: It is a segment in a radio programming schedule in which topical and important issues are tabled for discussion. This enables audience participation and allows the media body or outfit elicit feedback from its audience who are interested in the topic of discussion.

PROGRAMME: According to oxford advanced learners dictionary, it is a film, play, activity etc that is broadcast on television for people to watch or on radio for them to listen to.

PROGRAMME: It is a schedule of activities to be carried out and aired in a media house, be it radio or television.


Radio stations today frequently feature phone-in programs because they offer listeners a quick way to voice their opinions on any topical issue or policy.

Because the study will shed more and better light on the act of audience engagement in radio debates through phone-in programs, the researcher thinks that the study would highlight the significance of the selected phone-in program to the audience and media house.

The study, according to the researcher, should help people comprehend how phone-in programs contribute to the various technical aspects of communication as a whole.


Many radio stations in Nigeria broadcast phone-in programs as standalone episodes or as parts of larger programs. Thus, it is impossible to research all Nigerian radio stations. The researcher consequently chose to investigate Grace 95.5 FM in Lokoja, Kogi state.

The station in question broadcasts five phone-in programs. The researcher, at her discretion, chose “Soul Mender,” a phone-in program that addresses interpersonal issues as they relate to daily life and airs every Wednesday from 10 p.m. to 12 a.m. This marks the conclusion of this research project.


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