CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Maternal mortality is the leading cause of death among pregnant women in most poor countries, including Nigeria (Eni-Olorunda and Otito, 1 ). According to Mboho and Moller (2013), only two nations account for one-third of all maternal deaths worldwide: India and Nigeria. According to UNFPA (3), India was responsible for roughly 20% of all maternal deaths worldwide (56,000) in 2010, while Nigeria accounted for 14%. (40,000). During pregnancy and birth, however, the vast majority of Sub-Saharan African women face sickness, deformity, and death (Hogan, [4]; and Gynaecol, [5]). Similarly, during pregnancy and the months preceding it, the majority of African women are thought to be at a high risk of disease, injury, and death [6]. Every woman’s greatest wish is for a normal labor and delivery. For most women, vaginal birth was the most available and desired option several decades ago. Some of the ladies gave birth at home with the help of traditional birth attendants, but labor was frequently complicated by obstruction, and the women died before effective interventions could be used. Many infants are now delivered by caesarean section, which is a safe procedure. This success story is not without its critics. Caesarean section is still considered as a “curse” of an unfaithful mother in undeveloped countries [7]. The authors claim that caesarean sections are more common in fragile women in section. Furthermore, among the women of South Western Nigeria, caesarean section is associated with mistrust, aversion, misunderstanding, worry, shame, suffering, and fury. Even when there are clear medical reasons, the majority of Sub-Saharan African countries, such as Nigeria [7], only reluctantly accept caesarean section. Despite the knowledge that obstetric causes of maternal death are common, underlying cultural factors and attitudes hinder access to and use of health interventions, resulting to avoidable maternal fatalities [1]. Local beliefs and practices have been linked to general health and fertility in numerous studies. Some of these beliefs have been linked to delays in receiving competent help when complications arise during labor [8]. It’s crucial to note that the problem of vaginal delivery isn’t limited to developing countries; it also affects some developed countries. The article also stressed that women desperately want to go into labor before their scheduled checkups because not giving birth vaginally was seen as a sign of “failure.” Many women also consider vaginal birth to be a rite of passage [9]. Obstetrics is a contentious issue in today’s America [10]. Childbirth and the activities that accompany it, whether medical or not, provoke powerful emotions, and disputes are frequently framed in terms of nature vs. technology. As a result, the caesarean section is a divisive topic [10]. Despite this, rates of caesarean section are increasing in a number of western countries, notably the United States and the United Kingdom [11]. The World Health Organization established the World Health Organization in 1985 in response to the widening discrepancy in the incidence of caesarean deliveries between countries (WHO) The WHO recommends a 15 percent reduction in childbirth-related injuries and deaths. Furthermore, many mothers and children would refuse to undergo unnecessary and sometimes dangerous medical treatments [12]. The WHO revised their recommendation in 2009, stating that “the ideal rate is unclear, while both extremely low and extremely high rates of caesarean sections may be detrimental.” To put it another way, surgery should only be done if it is absolutely necessary. The editorial board of Academic Research International came to the opinion that a balance must be reached, and that women should be allowed to give birth vaginally with minimal assistance. Regardless, the families’ obstetricians will be ready in case of an unexpected emergency.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Following viability, a Caesarean section (CS) is the delivery of a fetus, placenta, and membranes through an abdominal and uterine incision (which is 28 weeks of gestation in developing countries). The caesarean section remains the most common surgical treatment performed on women around the world, and its use is increasing. CS can be used for maternal, fetal, or both purposes. Over the last two decades, the prevalence of CS has risen. Several CSs have been performed for various medical and non-medical reasons due to the procedure’s safety. The nationwide rate of CS in Nigeria is 1.8 percent. The rates for tertiary health institutions are significantly higher in several parts of the country.

The nationwide rate of CS in Nigeria is 1.8 percent. The rates for tertiary health institutions are significantly higher in several parts of the country. Northern Nigeria had lower rates, with 10.1 percent in Kano, 10.6 percent in Sokoto, 11.8 percent in Maiduguri, and 20.3 percent in Birnin-Kebbi, but southern Nigeria had higher rates, with 25 percent in Sagamu, 27.6 percent in Enugu, and 34.5 percent in Abraka. Pregnancy and childbirth-related mortality and morbidity have been found to be high in poor nations, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Despite the likelihood of vaginal birth following CS and the falling death rate associated with CS, Nigerian women have traditionally been unwilling to undergo CS because to the prevalent belief that abdominal delivery is a sign of reproductive failure.  Many serious problems, including as prolonged obstructed labor, uterine rupture, and obstetric fistulae, can be avoided with a timely caesarean section. The importance of a caesarean section in emergency obstetrics and the prevention of fetal and mother morbidity and mortality is self-evident. This demands a regular review of the operation, particularly in terms of identifying the factors that are preventing the use of this life-saving medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability and perception of caesarean section among female employees at the University of Calabar’s teaching hospital.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary goal of this study is to determine whether female employees at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital accept and perceive caesarean sections. The following are the precise goals:

The purpose of this study was to find out how female employees at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital felt about caesarean sections.

The goal of this study was to find out how much female personnel at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital knew about caesarean sections.

The purpose of this study was to see if female employees at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital were willing to have a caesarean section.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In the university of Calabar teaching hospital, how do female employees feel about caesarean sections?

What level of caesarean section knowledge does the female staff at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital have?

 

What is the level of caesarean section acceptability among female employees at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study will be used to develop strategies to improve community knowledge, perception, and attitude toward CS, with the goal of reducing the time it takes to present to a health facility when CS is required, increasing the use of this mode of delivery, and reducing avoidable maternal and foetal complications.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research will take place at the Calabar University Teaching Hospital. The female employees of the institution will be the respondents. The study’s goal is to determine whether female employees at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital in Rivers State accept and perceive caesarean sections.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher experienced some limitations when doing the current investigation. For starters, because this study focused on ale personnel at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital in Rivers State, the findings cannot be applied to other communities or places. Second, the researcher had to deal with both time and money limits.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

CAESAREAN SECTION: A Caesarean section, also known as a C-section or caesarean birth, is a medical procedure in which one or more babies are born through an incision in the mother’s belly, usually because vaginal delivery might endanger the baby or the mother.

PERCEPTION: how something, in this example a caesarean section, is viewed, understood, or interpreted.

ACCEPTANCE: the act of agreeing to receive or do something that has been given, in this case a caesarean section.

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