AFRICAN WALNUT OR TETRACARPIDIUMCONOPHORUM

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

 

According to reports, infectious diseases are to blame for 50% of all fatalities in tropical countries (WHO, 1977). As a result, people from all continents have used indigenous plant infusions and poultices for health purposes since prehistory and continue to do so today (Sofowora, 1993). In many regions of Africa and the rest of the world, plant medicine (also known as phytomedicine) has been used in the provision of healthcare (Elujoba, et al., 2005). In order to achieve effective health in Africa, conventional medicine must be combined with traditional medicine (Elujoba, et al., 2005). For their medical needs, at least 80% of Africans rely on plant medicine (Sofowora, 1993). According to Pennington and Fisher (2010), fruits and vegetables are recognized as natural sources of a variety of bioactive compounds.

be attributed to the phytoconstituents found in fruits and vegetables, including the flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and carotenoids (Gonz’alez-Aguilar et al., 2008).

Citrullus lanatus is a fruit that has medicinal properties. Many of these claims have not yet been verified by scientific studies, despite the fact that many of its applications in conventional medicine have been documented. The water melon’s ancestors, Citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon), originated in west Africa but are now grown all over the world. The cucurbitaceae family includes the egusi melon. The largest family, Cucurbitaceae, has about 825 species and 120 genera (Mabberly, 1987). It is mainly found in tropical countries and is not well-represented in temperate areas. Food sources from the Cucurbitaceae family include pumpkin (Cucurbita

water melon (citrullus lanatus), melon (cucumis melo), cucumber (cucumis sativa), and pepo (Nazimuddin and Naqvi, 1984; Sultan et al., 2010).

Watermelon’s nutritional value, as determined by Mathias et al. in 2001, shows that it is very rich in vitamins A 3%, some of the B series, such as Thiamine (Vit. B1), Riboflavin (Vit. B2), Niacin (Vit. B3), Pantothenic acid (B5), Vitamin B6 and Folate (Vit. B9), which range between 1-3%, and Vitamin C 14%. Calcium made up 1% of the minerals, followed by Iron 2%, Magnesium 3%, Phosphorus 2%, Potassium 2%, and Zinc 1%. Watermelon nutrition, raw (edible parts) Percentages represent the nutritional value per 100 grams in relation to US guidelines for adults. The essential amino acids arginine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as minerals like According to Ojeih et al. (2008), zinc and essential fatty acids may be very important for the health of the prostate. Nutritionally, essential fatty acids (EFA) are crucial for healthy prostate development and symptom relief (Strategy for Wellness by Source Naturals, Inc., 2000; SEPASAL, 2004). 92 percent of the weight of a watermelon is water. Additionally a mild diuretic, watermelon. Lycopene can be found in significant amounts in watermelons with red flesh. About 6 percent of the weight of a watermelon is made up of sugar; the remainder is mostly water. It is a source of vitamin C, like many other fruits, but only in small amounts unless one consumes several kilograms of fruit per day. Initially, water melon was used to extract the amino acid citrulline. and examined. Citrulline is present in significant amounts in water melon, and after consuming several kilograms, a high concentration of citrulline is detected in blood plasma, which may be mistaken for citrullinaemia. However, research on the benefits of Citullus lanatus juice on testicular health is scarce.

1.2SCOPE OF RESEARCH

This investigation sought to determine the effects of water melon juice on sperm morphology, motility, viability, count, and histology of the testis and epididymis in male rats.

1.3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

The study’s specific goals are to find out how water melon juice affects the following:

Wistar adult male rats’ sperm counts

Adult male Wistar rats’ sperm motility, including both progressive and non-progressive motility

Sperm characteristics in adult male Wistar rats

testicular histology in adult male wistar rats.

Epididymis histology in adult male Wistar rats

1.4JUSTIFICATION OF RESEARCH

The value of water melon in terms of phytomedicine has been established by numerous studies. The potential use of water melon as a herbal remedy for some ailments has been the subject of numerous studies. However, research on the impact of water melon on testicular health is scarce.

1.5EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE

By the end of the investigation, it should be possible to determine whether watermelon juice has any histological effects on the testes of adult male Wistar rats and how it affects certain sperm characteristics (Sperm count, Sperm motility and Sperm morphology).

 

Leave a Comment