We attempted to investigate the rates of infant mortality in Abia State. The goals of this research were to compare the mortality and birth rates of male and female infants to see if there is a significant yearly difference in their mortality and birth rates. Also, to see if infant mortality in Abia State is gender independent. Furthermore, to predict future trends in birth and death, as well as to devise some preventive measures to reduce infant mortality.

Between 2000 and 2004, there was a decrease in mortality in Abia State. This is due to the government’s aggressive policy of reducing infant and maternal mortality through the implementation of the National Programme.

on Immunization (NPI) and the Expanded Immunization Programme (EPI). It was also discovered that there was an increase in mortality from 1995 to 1999 as a result of a cholera epidemic, as published in “Your Health Magazine” 1998 Vol 3.

Finally, we recommend that good drinking water, good and affordable health services, and proper waste disposal be encouraged in order to reduce infant mortality and ensure the survival of our race.


The title page

Page of approval




The following is a table of contents.


1.0 General Introduction

1.1 Historical Background

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Investigational Questions

1.4 Purposes and Objectives

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

1.6 Scope of the Research

1.7 Limitations of the Research

1.8 Terminology Definition


2.0 Review of Relevant Literature


3.0 Getting Started

3.1 Information Sources

3.2 Data Collection Methodology

3.3 Problems With Data Collection

3.4 Data Analysis Methodology

Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test (3.5)

3.6 The Chi – Square Test

3.7 Forecasting of Future Trend Cases


4.0 Data Examination

4.1 The Wilcoxon Ranskum test

4.2 Birth records for male and female infants

4.3 Male and female infant deaths were recorded.

4.4 Determining whether an infant is

Birth and mortality are unaffected by gender.

4.5 The chi – square test

4.6 Forecasting of future trend cases


5.0 Findings and conclusions summary

5.1 Concluding Remarks

5.2 Ideas for Improvement

5.3 List of references



Since Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the federal government has invested heavily in the following sectors: agriculture, education, industries, health care, and banking, among others.

The government’s efforts in the area of health services have been to ensure that everyone, especially women and children, has good health. Her efforts are visible in the construction of numerous public health institutions across the states. Hospitals, Health Centres, Health Clinics, Maternities, and Mobile Clinics are examples of these.

There has recently been a general increase in health improvement as a result of increased awareness, better organization, increased public health consciousness, changes in medical practices, and other factors; however, these advances may appear insignificant when compared to the overall trend.

of the issues that remain unresolved, particularly in terms of infant diseases and infant mortality.

Mortal, according to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, means to die; not to live forever. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the state of being mortal is the temporaryness of living, or the inability to live forever.

In modern times, there has been an increase in global population, and any stability or decline in population would be considered abnormal. As Berkley (1958) said, “modern phrase of recent origin started from the peiod of 1600; the growth is quite unprecedented in any comparable period”. According to the preceding statement, such population changes are inherently transitory.

Health records in West African countries did not begin until the 1960s.

The orthodox medium arrived, but it was recognized before the white men arrived. There was a high prevalence of killer diseases that harmed maternal and infant health, resulting in high infant mortality. Furthermore, the sanitary condition of our local population, mode of feeding, and general condition leave much to be desired; additionally, a lack of health infrastructures created problems that resulted in high infant mortality.

Other recognized causes of infant mortality include measles, malaria, small pox, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis, poliomyelitis, dyphytaria, and jaundice. The Nigerian government, through the National Programme on Immunization and the Expanded Programme on Immunization, made significant contributions to the improvement of infant health in the late 1980s.

According to recent health journals such as “Health care,”

The liming legs are rapidly disappearing, and the black fly-caused plague of onchosochaism is over. Today’s children and infants are living without it. Poliomyelitis is on its way out of our country, thanks to the three-month immunization program implemented in 2000.


The protestant churches, the Anglican, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches, collaborated to build the federal medical center Umuahia in the early 1950s. The three churches agree to collaborate on the construction of a joint hospital as a means and avenue for joint Christian medical services and Christian evangelism. Trained and qualified Christian ladies were generally nurses and midwives, creating an environment for true Christian women.

Evangelism and the gospel. The hospital was initially known as the Union Mission Joint Training Hospital. Nurses and student nurses were recruited from hospitals named after three denominations and located in Calabar’s Iyi Enu, Ituk Mbang, and Etinagi. It was later renamed Queen Elizabeth Hospital as a mark of appreciation and courtesy to Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain when she formally and officially opened the hospital in 1956, during the regime of his excellency the governor of Nigeria’s Eastern Region, Sir. Clement Plear.

The hospital quickly gained popularity and reputation, but it suffered a setback during the Nigeria civil war from 1967 to 1970, when most of the medical equipment was looted. Furthermore, indigenous missionaries could be employed.

not keep the hospital open after the foreign missionaries left at the end of the war.

As a result, the East Central State of Nigeria Edit No 6 of 1972: with the creation of the Imo State Government, she changed the name of Ramat Specialist Hospital in honour of the later Head of State General Ramat Murtala Mohammed, under the direction of Navy Captain Ndubuisi Kanu, the then military governor. It was returned to Queen Elizabeth Hospital on December 16, 1983, in response to a request from the people of old Imo State.

On May 1, 1992, the Federal Government reclaimed the hospital and renamed it Federal Hospital.

Umuahia Medical Centre.

The Federal Medical Centre Umuahia is located in Umuahia, Abia State’s capital. The hospital has ten wards, two medical wards for men and two for women, maternity wards, a pediatrics ward, and two operating rooms, one for obstetrics and one for general surgery. The hospital also has antenatal clinics, an x-ray department, pharmacy and medical laboratory units, and medical records/statistics.

The hospital has two training schools: the Nursing School and the Midwifery School. It employs approximately 720 people, including medical doctors, nurses, house officers, laboratory technicians and scientists, accounting officers, records officers, pharmacists, administrative officers, and attendants.


The researcher was deeply concerned about the alarming rate at which infants were dying in Abia State, and the following statements and questions prompted him to conduct a study on the rate of infant mortality in Abia State.

1. The infant mortality rate in Abia State was concerning.

2. The infant mortality rate may have been higher in a specific sex.

3. Many factors, including disease, could have contributed to the high rate of infant mortality.

4. The infant mortality rate in Abia State should follow a consistent pattern over time.

5. Some preventive measures should be implemented to reduce the number of infant deaths in Abia State.


1. What are the leading causes of infant mortality in Abia State?

2. Is there a way to compare infant male and female mortality rates to see if there is a significant yearly difference in their mortality rates?

3. Is the infant mortality rate in Abia State gender dependent?

4. Is it possible to establish the trend of infant mortality in Abia State?

5. Are there any preventive measures in place to reduce the number of infant deaths in Abia State?


1. To compare the infant mortality rates of male and female infants to see if there is a significant yearly difference in their mortality rates.

2. To determine whether infant mortality in Abia State is gender independent.

3. To propose potential preventive measures to reduce the number of infant deaths that may occur.

4. To ascertain the trend of the infant mortality rate.

5. Recommendations will be made based on the findings.


The following hypotheses are being tested in this study:

H0: There is a statistically significant difference in the yearly mortality rate of male and female infants.

H1: There is no statistically significant difference in the yearly mortality rate of male and female infants.

H0: Infant mortality in Abia State is unrelated to gender.

H1: Infant mortality in Abia State is not gender independent.


This project’s scope is limited to the federal medical center in Umuahia, Abia State. The study spans a ten-year period, from 1995 to 2004.


The researcher was forced to confine the study to the federal medical center in Umuahia. This was chosen as a representative sample for generalized decision making. The study is limited in scope because the infant mortality rate was only studied for ten years and only one hospital, the Federal Medical Center Umuahia, was considered.

The hospital has a problem with insufficient record keeping, which makes retrieving such information difficult.

People’s ignorance, which includes not recording infant deaths that occurred outside of hospitals, results in a report of mortality that far outweighs those recorded in any known hospital. Finally, a lack of funds and time imposed a constraint. The study’s major limitation is that it is limited to only one hospital and runs for only two months.


The terms used in this study are all Demography terms unique to the subject matter.

The following are some of the terms commonly used in this study, which serve as reference terms and aid in data analysis.



Infant mortality


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