AN EXAMINATION OF ECONOMIC RETROGRESSION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM BENUE STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Because the organization of schooling and higher education has long been associated with the concept of curriculum, it is reasonable to argue that curriculum is all about the experiences required of a child for overall development. A curriculum is a specific type of teaching practice specification. It is not a collection of resources or a list of topics to cover; rather, it is a technique for turning any educational concept into a reality-tested hypothesis. It encourages investigation rather than compliance (Stenhouse, 2005).

A curriculum is also defined as a specification for teaching practice that considers the pragmatic effectiveness of the learners’ experiences. Experience, in its broadest sense, refers to knowledge or skills gained through participation in or exposure to activities.

to something or some events. In this regard, the curriculum is a critical component of education, with the overall goals of education heavily reliant on the curriculum’s nature (NERDC, 2004).

According to curriculum experts, developing, designing, implementing, or reforming a curriculum requires the participation of key stakeholders if it is to be relevant, meaningful, and appropriate to the people for whom it was created. Dewey (1897) defined education as a social construct that is a part of society and should reflect it. In this sense, the curriculum, which includes current trends, traditional values, and individual expression, is the driving force behind education.

Bobbitt (2008) defined curriculum as “the curriculum of actions and experiences that aid in the development of learners.”

into the adults required to succeed in adult society. In other words, the curriculum encourages a wide range of formative behaviors and experiences that occur both inside and outside of the classroom in order to purposefully form adult members of society.

In contrast, a curriculum may refer to a well-defined and specified course of study that students must complete in order to graduate from a certain level of education. In other words, the curriculum is viewed as a collection of educational activities that comprise a specific educational system. In his assessment of cognitive development theory, Ackerman (2008) described how the curriculum is sequenced in schools.

In Nigeria, for example, the secondary school curriculum is designed to assist all students in developing their skills.

spiritual, intellectual, and social potential, as well as an appreciation for the value of education in their everyday life. It is critical to remember that developing or designing a curriculum is one thing; successfully implementing it is quite another. Objectives cannot be met at any level of education if the planned program for that level of education is not carried out effectively. According to Onyeachu (2008), regardless of how well a curriculum is developed, created, and recorded, implementation is critical.

It is possible that educational institutions were established in Nigeria to meet global criteria for developing workforce capable of serving in a variety of capacities and positively contributing to the nation’s socioeconomic and political development (Abdulkareem, Fasasi & Akinubi, 2011). However, how well has Nigerian education served its purpose?

mandate? In other words, does the Nigerian curriculum reflect the goals of the country’s national education policy?

A country’s strength is defined by its economy, and a nation’s economy is defined by its productivity, which is fueled by the creativity of its residents and inhabitants, because the nation is made up of people. There is no such thing as a country without its people.

A country’s economy is the sum of its earnings from all productive activities conducted in order to generate income that can be used efficiently and effectively for the country’s growth and gross development.

In light of this, the economy of a country is derived from the productivity of its citizens and inhabitants, which is a function of their labor.

of idea generation and strategic implementation to generate tangible and intangible valuables for the exchange of other valuables from other sources, including both internal and external value for value exchange, which involves nations in the process of international trade.

Early nationalists recognized that the country could not develop without a solid foundation in a national education system capable of producing the desired high-quality workforce required for national development and economic growth, so the history of Nigerian education is inextricably linked to the history of Nigerian economic growth.

In accordance with the government’s declaration for the nine-year Basic Education Programme, the NERDC reviewed the existing Senior Secondary Education Programme for this level of education, SSEC, in accordance with a mandate from the National Council on Education.

in order to meet the targets of the education program in relation to the NEEDS, MDGs, and EFA, all of which are government-sponsored programs. However, Nigeria’s economic downturn has made implementation of the curriculum in secondary schools more difficult.

1.2 THE PROBLEM’S STATEMENT

Curriculum implementation has been a major concern at all levels of our educational system. The curriculum’s implementation has been fraught with difficulties, particularly at the senior high school level. Concerns have been raised about a large disparity in student-teacher ratios, a lack of instructional materials and learning facilities such as the mathematics laboratory, a lack of positive student-teacher relationships, poor instructional quality as a result of ineffective instructional approaches (Tyler, 2012), and, of course, economic regression. As a result, students are almost certainly

Perform poorly in the subject. Despite the intrinsic value of secondary school education in human daily activities, empirical evidence shows that students perform poorly on the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and the National Examination Council (NECO) (Ajimobi, 2018).

As a result, an examination of the implementation of the senior secondary curriculum is required to determine what went wrong. The study will look into how economic retrogression affects curriculum implementation in senior secondary schools.

1.2 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of this research is to investigate economic retrogression and its impact on secondary school curriculum implementation in Benue State. This study specifically seeks to:

i. Determine the extent to which the secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented.

in the state of Benue.

ii. Determine whether economic retrogression has a negative impact on secondary school curriculum implementation.

iii. Determine whether economic regression has an impact on the provision of adequate teaching materials needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.

iv. Determine whether economic regress has an impact on the hiring and retention of qualified teachers required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.

1.3 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH

This study will address the following research questions:

i. To what extent is the secondary school curriculum effectively implemented in Benue State?

ii. Does economic retrogression have a negative impact on secondary school curriculum implementation?

iii. Does economic regression have an impact on the provision of adequate teaching materials needed for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools?

iv. Does economic regression occur?

How does this affect the hiring and retention of qualified teachers required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools?

1.4 THE STUDY’S IMPORTANCE

This study is significant because of the theoretical contributions it will make to the existing literature on the evaluation of secondary school curricula in Nigeria. The presented findings will be used to supplement existing literature on how to improve teaching and learning in the senior secondary school curriculum. The importance of curriculum evaluation in determining the effectiveness of a course of education cannot be overstated. These evaluation studies’ literature adds to the existing body of knowledge about procedures for improving the quality of teaching and learning in schools. Every educational program should be regularly monitored to determine whether the program’s objectives are being met.

affect the recruitment and retention of qualified teachers required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools?

1.4 THE STUDY’S SIGNIFICANCE

This study is noteworthy because of the theoretical contributions it will make to the current literature on the evaluation of secondary school curricula in Nigeria. The findings presented will be used to supplement existing literature on how to improve teaching and learning in the senior secondary school curriculum. The importance of curriculum evaluation is critical in determining the effectiveness of a course of education. The literature generated by these evaluation studies adds to the existing body of knowledge about procedures for improving the quality of teaching and learning in schools. Every educational program should be monitored on a regular basis to determine whether the program’s objectives are being met.

Every time.

The study’s findings will be useful to the Post Primary Schools Management Board as well, as they may help them recognize the importance of taking serious measures to ensure that facilities/instructional materials are available and adequate for children attending secondary schools in both urban and rural areas. The knowledge gained from the study’s conclusions may also be useful to PPSMB in ensuring the continued professional development of biology instructors. This may also benefit instructors by providing them with up-to-date information on current developments in mathematics education and child development.

The findings of this study may also benefit parents. This is due to the fact that the high-quality education and care provided to their wards and children through teaching programs may also bring joy and happiness to the family. The education of their children

Furthermore, performance may serve as a guarantee of a brighter tomorrow.

Finally, the findings could help future researchers, especially those interested in teaching and learning. The information could provide them with empirical data on the extent to which specified minimum education criteria are implemented in Nigeria, which could be useful for future research in related fields.

1.5 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this research will be to investigate the impact of economic retrogression on curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Benue State. This study will specifically focus on determining the extent to which secondary school curriculum is effectively implemented in Benue State and determining whether economic retrogression has a negative effect on curriculum implementation in secondary schools.

determining whether economic retrogression has an impact on the provision of adequate teaching materials required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools; and determining whether economic retrogression has an impact on the employment and retention of qualified teachers required for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.

Respondents for this study will be teachers and students from selected secondary schools in Benue State.

1.6 THE STUDY’S LIMITATIONS

As with any human endeavor, the researcher encountered minor setbacks while conducting the study. Because there was a scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally,

This investigation was carried out in conjunction with other scholarly endeavors by the researcher. Furthermore, because only a small number of respondents completed the research instrument, the findings cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the constraints encountered throughout the investigation, all aspects were minimized to ensure the best results and most productive research.

1.7 TERM DEFINITION

Influence: the ability to have an effect on someone or something’s character, development, or behavior, or the effect itself.

Economic retrogression is the act of regressing to a previous and worse state.

Curriculum: A curriculum is broadly defined in education as the totality of student experiences that occur during the educational process. The term is frequently used to refer to a planned event.

 

 

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