1.1 Background to the Study

Since the dawn of time, there has been a constant interaction between man and his surroundings in the pursuit of goal achievement, and it was this interaction that gave rise to the concept of an organization. This interaction involved the use of human, physical, and material resources. According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, an organization is “a group of individuals working together in a division of labor to achieve a common goal.” Families, banks, corporations, schools, and other organizations are examples of organizations. The school can be perceived as a structured environment in which educational courses are understood. Alternatively, one could argue that the school is a formal organization that serves as a transitional stage in life between the home and the workplace.

society (Olabode, 2018; Musa, 2016; Tabir, 2016). (Olabode, 2018; Musa, 2016; Tabir, 2016).

A school’s goal can be summed up as the academic performance of its students as well as the overall development of the individual. The sole purpose of the school organization is to cultivate an individual’s intellectual, emotional, and skillful aspects so that the individual can be useful to himself and his society. A variety of considerations must be made in order for an organization to achieve its objectives. Teachers and students-related variables such as teacher qualification, the teacher-student relationship, and the teacher’s and students’ attitude toward chemistry teaching are some of the organizational factors that influence students’ academic performance in the science discipline.

and learning, respectively; school environment variables such as class size, availability of laboratory facilities, facility utilization, and school location, among others.

The presence of schools as institutions of social order has a significant impact on the education of people in any nation. The extent to which a country has mastered scientific fields is inextricably linked to that country’s overall progress in meeting the technical requirements of a globalizing society (Yara P., 2019). The body of scientific knowledge is one of the components that make up science. What is the science exactly?

Natural philosophers of the 17th century laid the groundwork for modern science, which can be defined as an attempt to understand nature. The following is an example: “Science….is a human endeavor involving the continuous process of seeking explanations and understandings of the natural world, and also includes that which the process produces—reservoir man’s of knowledge,” according to one comprehensive definition. The scientific method incorporates both procedure and outcome (NSTA, 1961). Scientists interact with the natural world to discover its secrets by developing hypotheses and designing experiments to test those hypotheses; as a result, new scientific information is generated, which can then be used for either beneficial or harmful purposes (Ajeyalemi, 2019). He went on to say that science is distinct from other fields of study because of the provisional nature of its knowledge, the testability of its tenets, the universality of its methods, and the empirical nature of its findings. Its methods will not become obsolete. Furthermore, he stated that science has three dimensions: knowledge, method, and applicability. The scientific method can be divided into its constituent parts, which are chemistry, physics, mathematics, and biology. Making students scientifically literate is a primary goal that is widely acknowledged for science education, and this goal is consistent across all areas of science. The goals of chemistry instruction in Nigerian senior secondary schools are as follows: I Facilitate a transition in the use of scientific concepts and techniques acquired in integrated science with chemistry; (ii) Provide students with basic knowledge in chemical concepts and principles through efficient content selection and sequencing; and (iii) Show chemistry in its interrelationships with other subjects (iv)

Every day, demonstrate chemistry and its relationship to industry;” I facilitate a transition in the use of scientific concepts (Nigeria, 2015).

These objectives are inextricably linked to the goals of secondary education in Nigeria, which are to prepare students for productive lives in their communities and for tertiary study (National policy of Education Nigeria, 2015).

The set goals are not being met in the lives of a significant number of Nigerians who finish secondary school each year. This could be attributed to some aspects of the school’s structure, which have an impact on the academic achievement of the students. Many studies have revealed that students in senior secondary schools are uninterested. in the field of science (Esiobu, 2015; Okonkwo, 2020). Furthermore, it appears that a large number of students learn very little science at school, that learning is rote, and that students find the process of learning science difficult (Eyibe, 2019) Even though chemistry has applications in our homes (such as the kitchen, laundry room, and bedroom) as well as in industry, it can be a lot of fun if we understand the fundamentals. Despite the fact that chemistry is a critical field of study and despite efforts by both the federal and state governments to promote chemistry education, students continue to avoid taking chemistry classes (Jegede, 2017). This is also visible in a According to a recent report by the Shelter Right Initiative (Olubusuyi, 2016), Nigerian candidates lagged behind their counterparts from other West African countries in science subjects conducted by the West African Examinations Council for a total of eight consecutive years, between 1992 and 1999. The West African Examinations Council administered the exams (WAEC). In my experience, chemistry as a science appears to be interesting, but most students are afraid of it. Some students regard it as an abstract concept that cannot be grasped, seen, or understood. Chemistry is a difficult subject with many calculations, and if the teacher and school are not qualified and equipped to teach it, students will struggle. To counteract these dispositions, poor performance in the science disciplines on both the internal and external Examinations will result. According to Adu, Ojelabi, and Adeyanju (2019), a person’s academic performance can be thought of as a simple result of all of the academic tasks or rigors that the individual is required to complete, and this outcome can be described poorly or successfully. Academic performance cannot be fostered in students who are discouraged, according to Ijaduola (2018). As a result, teachers and other machinery must significantly contribute to students’ academic success. Parents, scientific educators, members of the general public, and even the government have expressed concerns about the level of quality in both.

science education and learning (Ivowi, Okebukola, Oludotun & Akpan, 2019). Science education in Nigerian schools has come under fire as a result of Nigerian students’ poor performance in scientific courses when compared to their peers in other countries. This is evident from the findings of the Second International Science Study, in which Nigerian students finished dead last in primary science and second to last in secondary science when compared to students from the other countries that participated in the study (STAN, 1992).

For a long time, educators and researchers have debated which school variable has the greatest impact on the academic performance of science students. This will become more prevalent as policymakers become more involved in the process of school reform.

Because their initiatives rely on a presumed relationship between a variety of education-related factors and learning outcomes, the question takes on new significance (Hammond, 2019).

Jegede, Okota, and Eniayeju (2019) conducted a study that revealed some of the factors responsible for students’ overall poor performance in science, technology, and mathematics. These factors include an insufficient number of learning facilities in schools, despite a consistent increase in the number of students; inadequate laboratory facilities; and teachers’ inability to communicate ideas clearly to students.

The majority of schools in Nigeria lack the necessary resources, and as a result, they are unable to produce competent scientists; additionally, some teachers have not received adequate training, and as a result, they are unable to produce competent scientists. As a result, they are unable to be helpful and resourceful to their students; the knowledge passed on to their students focuses primarily on the cognitive component of education; students learn theories but are not taught how to apply those theories to actual life situations. Some schools that have access to the facilities do not use them in the teaching and learning processes; rather, they arrange for students to use them when they are being evaluated by other organizations. According to Olakoya (2015), in an educational setting such as a secondary school, facilities such as furniture, laboratory equipment, and materials have a significant impact on the teaching and learning process. This is because of the

empty buildings and structures, no matter how appealing they are, cannot be used for educational purposes without these things. As a result, having access to and making good use of them is unquestionably an essential component of effective educational planning; without it, children’s academic performance cannot be improved. Against this backdrop, this study seeks to investigate the factors influencing science students’ academic achievement in ondo state.

1.2. Problem Description

Everyone in Nigeria, including the government and society as a whole, should be concerned about the current situation, which includes a high failure rate in scientific subjects in our senior secondary schools. Many students, according to the findings of numerous studies, science was difficult, tedious, and unappealing to them (Salau, 2017) Other factors that impede students’ academic achievement in chemistry include their participation in laboratory work, their attitude toward chemistry instruction, and the availability of chemistry laboratory resources (Okebukola, 2018). Poor academic performance of students in chemistry due to organizational factors is a problem because the goal of equipping students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology, as formulated in the Nigerian National Policy on Education (FGN, 2015), will become a pipe dream if not controlled, and citizens will be unable to develop scientific literacy useful for coping in the modern scientific and technological world. This is a problem because the goal of preparing students is not met. It was difficult to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology. This is consistent with the goals of chemistry education, which are not being met due to organizational factors; most chemistry educators value practical chemistry for a variety of reasons, including motivation, concept learning, skill development, and appropriate scientific attitudes. Chemistry is a scientific field that emphasizes hands-on learning, and the recommended approach to teaching it, known as guided discovery, is a resource-based instructional strategy (NTI, 2017). This lends credence to the hypothesis that complete mastery of chemical principles is impossible without the use of instructional learning resources. Regardless of whether students are present, proper laboratory resource utilization is required for teaching chemistry.

are rarely exposed to practical work. According to Lee and Fraser’s (2020) research, many science educators do not place a high value on laboratory activities because they believe that doing so takes time away from instructing in order to cover a curriculum that is driven by specific examinations. According to Akpan (2019), chemistry students’ lack of participation in practical activities has resulted in poor communication and observational skills. As a result, students’ chemistry performance has suffered, as has their failure rate in both external and internal examinations.

According to Morgil, Secken, and Ycel (2017), many laboratories’ activities focused on verifying what was already known. rather than assisting students in developing process skills that could motivate them to stay on task for longer periods of time, thereby leaving skill mastery to chance. This demonstrates that many students only work on previously supplied answers rather than focusing on what the instructor teaches, resulting in poor performance in external examinations. This is the reason, based on my personal experience. To address the ongoing issue of a high failure rate in chemistry, one must first develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in science teaching and learning in Nigerian schools, identify the factors limiting the academic performance of chemistry students, and then attempt to develop a reasonable solution.

The ideal picture that the country can strive for within its current resource constraints. Only then will it be possible to address the remaining issues. As a result, the factors influencing science students’ academic achievement in ondo state

13 The study’s objective.

The study’s overarching goal is to investigate the factors that influence science students’ academic achievement in Ondo state. The study specifically looks into:

i. To investigate whether teachers’ qualifications influence students’ academic achievement in science subjects.

ii. Determine whether the availability of a laboratory influences students’ academic achievement in science.

iii. To determine whether the experience of teachers influences students’ academic achievement in science.

iv. Determine whether the student-teacher relationship influences students’ academic achievement.

1.4 Research concerns.

The study aimed to

discover the answers to the following questions:

i. Do teachers’ qualifications affect students’ academic achievement in science subjects?

ii. Does the availability of a laboratory influence students’ academic performance in science?

iii. Does the experience of teachers influence students’ academic achievement in science?

iv. Does the student-teacher relationship influence students’ academic achievement?

1.5 The Study’s Importance.

This study makes the following significant contributions to knowledge and education in an effort to improve the Academic Performance of students in the Science discipline and make science learning more appealing:

To encourage stakeholders to improve on isolated variables found to have a direct relationship with students’ academic performance in chemistry in order to improve performance in the subject.

First, there are the educators, curriculum planners, and classroom teachers.

Teachers are given detailed information about the state of science teaching/learning and practices in Nigerian secondary schools, as well as realistic ways to improve the situation, because teacher qualification and student academic performance are important criteria in the development and implementation of both curricular and instructional performance.

1.6 The Study’s Scope

The study will look into whether teachers’ qualifications affect students’ academic achievement in science subjects. The study will also determine whether the availability of laboratories affects students’ academic achievement in science. The study will look into whether teachers’ experience affects students’ academic achievement in science. Finally, the study will determine whether the relationship between students and teachers influences students’ academic achievement. As a result, this study will be limited to Ondo State.

1.7 Restrictions on

The researchers encountered minor constraints while conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. Inadequate funds tend to impede the researcher’s efficiency in sourcing relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher chose a moderate sample size. Furthermore, the researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the time spent researching will be reduced.

1.8 Definitions of terms

Academic achievement: performance outcomes that indicate how far a person has progressed toward specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional settings, such as school, college, and university.


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