1.1 Background To The Study

In the present age of science and technology, secondary school is viewed as a center for a livelihood. Sofolahan’s Committee (1971) recommended geography as one of the basic subjects based on this, and this was agreed upon.

This emphasis on geography arose as a result of improvements in science and technology in industrialized nations, which were then spread to developing countries such as Nigeria. When Fafunwa (1971) states, “we are in a world where science and technology have become an intrinsic part of the world,” he admits this.

Geography is taught at the Senior Secondary School level in response to the proposed general shift toward curricular unification. This phrase implies that new trends should not be accepted without inquiry, and that instructors should comprehend the nature of geography and the necessity to combine the components that make up geography, as well as tie geography or nature to man, which in this case is the study of geography.

The National Policy on Education stipulated that geography should be one of the fundamental subjects taught in secondary school.

The selection of geography is based on strong educational principles. It portrays science and social science as the intimately intertwined and intellectually interwoven activity that it is.

A subject-centered curriculum does not support the development of life perspectives, which is the primary goal of education. Aside from that, pupils at this level have psychological depositions that cause them to view events or phenomena in a coherent manner.

Furthermore, if the primary function of geography instruction in the Senior Secondary School is general education for the majority of students, few of whom will become geography majors, this function is best served by renewing social science in as broad a scope as possible; thus, when the term social science is used in the geography curriculum, it means that the course is designed and presented in such a way that the child:-

(a) Acquires knowledge of the fundamental unit of geography.

(b) Acquires the commonality approach to scientific concerns.

(c) It aided in developing a knowledge of the role of science, technology, and social science in everyday life and the world in which he or she lives. Geography holds a distinct place in the Secondary School curriculum; it serves as the basis for further education in the social sciences for students who choose to follow a social science-related profession, as well as a general introduction to the sciences for those who may wish to pursue either. Humanity is founded on vocational studies, hence the success or failure of geography education at the Senior Secondary level is critical.

A good geography foundation will prepare millions of Senior Secondary School students for successful social science careers, so indirectly contributing to Nigeria’s much-needed scientific and technical growth.

A shaky foundation may have unintended consequences. It is for these reasons that geography should be adequately and successfully taught to students in Senior Secondary School. To achieve this, all components of the geography curriculum must be taught to pupils if they are to have a balanced introduction to scientific and social science.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Under the direction of the state ministry of education, the Educational Resource Centre (ERC) develops questions, conducts exams, marks scripts, grades them, and awards certificates to examinees under their control. They frequently ask secondary school teachers from various topics to set questions and send them to the ERC while they are creating the questions. According to the Inspectors of Science’s yearly reports, some questions are repeated multiple times in one question paper, some with incorrect spellings, and other alternatives are absent or left blank. It is possible that many of the instructors from various schools who have been utilized to set these questions lack the necessary expertise to develop acceptable questions covering the complete levels of the cognitive domain with proper representation of themes in the curriculum. These factors may be to blame for pupils’ low performance in state MOCK tests. In such cases, such questions may not prepare pupils for national or even external tests such as NECO, NABTEB, or WASSCE. This may also explain why pupils’ academic performance in Geography in the SSCE has been dismal, notably in Ogun State. According to a review of previous results in the state, around 57 percent of senior high school pupils fared below average. As a result, pupils’ academic performance in Geography in Ogun State has been declining. The trends in the rate of poor performance % pass at the state level were as follows: 39 percent in 2015, 40.6 percent in 2016, 30 percent in 2017, 28 percent in 2018, and 20.1% in 2019. As a result, this condition is not progressive for the state or pupils in general. As a result, there is a need to find a solution to students’ low performance and chart a course forward. According to the researchers’ analysis of the literature, a number of studies on the content validity of several courses provided in senior secondary school levels have been undertaken, but no study has been conducted in Ogun State to investigate the content validity of questions issued by ERC. As a result, a study on the content validity of questions in Geography in Ogun State is required.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objectives of the study are:

To determine the performance of the students in the selected schools.

To identify the effects of teacher’s attitudes and qualification on the performance of the student in geography.

To identify the effects of student’s attitude on their performance in geography.

To bring out the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the performance of the student in geography.

To identify the environmental factors which affects the performance of the students in geography.

1.4 Research question

What is level of performance of the students in the selected schools?

What is the effects of teacher’s attitudes and qualification on the performance of the student in geography?

What is the effects of student’s attitude on their performance in geography ?

What is the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the performance of the student in geography ?

What are the environmental factors which affects the performance of the students in geography ?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This initiative would be extremely beneficial to both the federal government and the Ogun State Government in general. However, it would be critical for Odogbolu Local Government to assess how far they have progressed in reaching their Educational targets and objectives, with a focus on scientific and social science.

It will also aid in the resolution of problems encountered by students. As a result, we must ensure that our future scientists have a sound basis. This investigation was able to identify several issues affecting student performance in geography and offer long-term remedies to those issues and the variables causing them.

1.5 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

Specially, the appraisal was a correlational study of the above tested variable or factor in 1.2 or a sample of private Senior Secondary School Students achievements in geography in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun-State.

The inference drawn from the study were therefore limited to the precise sample in question. The main limitation is in the fact that only Six of the multi various identifiable variables that might have influence the performance of the students in geography are consider in this study.

1.6 Operational Definitions Of Terms

(1) Appraisal: This means an investigation or find out. It can also be referred to as a guess to confirm.

(2) Performance: An Act or action of a person or somebody.

(3) Data: The analysis of the appraisal made in Arithmetical form or order.

(4) Geography: The word geography is coined from two Greek words geo-meaning the earth and graph meaning to describe so geography is the description of the earth it is also defined as the study of people their activities, places and physical things within the earth.

(5) Discipline: To Train and control the mind and character of some one or to produce self control habit of obedience.

(6) Curriculum: Brief written account of one’s past history or course of study in a school, college e.t.c.

(7) Subsidiary: Serving as a help or support but not as of first importance

(8) Stratified: Arrange in strata.

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