1.1 Background of the Study

The academic performance of any student is inextricably linked to the home environment in which the student grows up; a stable home environment provides emotional security to a student. One of the most fundamental responsibilities of education is to prepare young people to become contributing members of society. This training begins in a relaxed environment at home with a family member. Because of his or her parents’ efforts, the child’s home is the first place he or she enters after being born into the world. Children are more motivated to work on activities and to learn new information and skills when their environments are rich in interesting activities that pique their interest while also posing moderate challenges to their abilities. As with the school environment, there is a great deal of variation in motivational influences in homes. Some homes have a variety of activities that stimulate children’s thinking, such as computers, books, and puzzles; others have parents who are highly interested in their children’s cognitive development and who spend time with them on learning; and still others have no activities that stimulate children’s thinking. The provision of a stimulating home environment by the family accounts for a significant portion of the variability in the relationship between family income and children’s intellectual development (Young, Linver & Brooks, 2002). During infancy and early childhood, the home environment has the greatest influence on a child’s intellectual development. When they are directly under the influence of their parents. As children grow older, schools and peers begin to play an increasingly important role in their intellectual socialization. There is a great deal of evidence to support the hypothesis that the quality of a child’s early learning in the home environment is related positively to the development of intelligent and reading skills (Meece, 2002; Sene Chai & Lefevre 2002), and that parental involvement in schooling is also associated with academic achievement (Meece, 2002). (Luckner, Whaley & Egeland, 2004).

Various factors in the home have been shown to be important, including the responsiveness of the mother, her discipline style and involvement with the child, the organization of the environment, the availability of appropriate learning materials, and the availability of daily stimulation opportunities. Providing a warm, responsive, and supportive environment for their children, encouraging exploration and stimulating curiosity, as well as providing play and learning materials, can help to accelerate their children’s intellectual development (Meece, 2006). Which of the following has the potential to improve academic performance in the long run?

It is necessary to examine both the roles of mothers and fathers in the home environment because differentiating parent behavior has been implicated as an important variable affecting children’s development on numerous occasions. Some examples of probable parental behavior that might have an impact on children’s motivating ideas are as follows:

Contributions to the child’s school performance are given.

Children’s expectations and confidence in their own talents are affected by their perceptions of the difficulty of their schoolwork and the value they place on it.

The home environment serves as a foundation for learning and is a component of student life that may have an impact on grades and behavior. According to the University of Minnesota Extension, providing students with chances to study outside of the classroom may help them achieve greater success in the school setting overall. According to experts, the educational level of a mother has the single greatest influence on the academic achievement of a young kid in elementary school.

Although the school cannot provide a complete continuation of the home environment, it can play an important role in laying the groundwork for a child’s learning to read and write. However, this influence is characterized by a variety of factors such as the educational attainment of the parents and cultural issues that affect the child’s development. Over the years, the society has witnessed a consistent increase in poor performance in various school examinations, such as the senior secondary school certificate examination (S.S.C.E.). Comments from educators have revealed that poor performance has been attributed to students and parents’ neglect and careless attitude toward academic work. As a result of these considerations, the researcher has opted to look at the academic performance of children. It has already been mentioned that there are several aspects that influence a child’s academic achievement. A child’s academic achievement, as well as his or her surroundings, learning facilities, and sociocultural concerns, is undeniably linked to these factors. The aptitude and potential of every kid is predetermined at birth, but a suitable supportive environment with proper learning resources will aid in the development of a child’s intellectual and academic abilities. If parents come from a positive learning environment, they will always have a positive attitude toward education and will provide learning materials such as television, instructional videos, books, and toys (creative toys), among other things, that will aid in the learning process if these materials are made available.

Educated parents will always believe that it is important to assist a child with his or her home work and to revise the school work that the child has completed; however, if a child comes from a poor home environment, he or she will be deprived of many opportunities and will struggle with the teaching and learning process to a significant degree.

1.2 Statement of Problem

A good education is not something that happens by accident. It is the result of successful teaching and learning, as well as the efforts of the instructor, the school, the students, the parents, and the diverse home contexts in which they grow up. The responsibility for kids’ poor performance in school is often placed on the shoulders of instructors and school administrators (Meece, 2006).

The majority of families in our culture do not seem to devote sufficient time and resources to their children’s education. It indicates that some parents have erroneous perceptions about their children’s success in school, that they are unaware of the situation, and that they are not fulfilling their responsibilities of counseling and encouragement in their children’s school performance. Some individuals also believe that the instructors and school administrators are to blame for the widespread failure or success in educational institutions (Meece, 2006). Others, on the other hand, believe that the socioeconomic position of the family has an impact on the child’s academic success. However, some study has found that the performance of the pupils is the result of a collaborative effort between the school officials and the parents, who live in a variety of diverse home environments.

This necessitates more investigation to determine the root reasons of the kids’ low performance and then to provide solutions to these problems. The concept that the elements responsible for the repeated overwhelming failure of pupils in the junior and senior West African School Certificate Examinations (WASCE) are solely the responsibility of the school administrators and instructors is held by some students and their parents. While some pupils are sent to specialized centers, some parents are aware that there are specific variables in the student’s home environment that contribute to this problem (Meece, 2006). According to this assumption, the purpose of this research was to identify some of the factors impacting kids’ academic performance that are related to their home environment, as well as provide solutions to these problems.

1.3 Objective of The Study

The general objective of the study is to examine the impact of home environment on the academic achievement of secondary school students. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:

  1. To find out if parent educational level affect academic achievement of the student.
  2. To examine if family size influences students academic achievement.
  3. To evaluate the level to which family type affect the academic achievement of students

1.4 Research question

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. Does parent educational level affect academic achievement of the student?
  2. Does family size influences students academic achievement?
  3. What is the level to which family type affect the academic achievement of students?

1.5 Significant of the Study

This study will help contribute to the existing knowledge already on ground concerning the home environment and academic achievement of secondary school student. The findings of the investigation will help the various authorities as teachers, parents and caregivers in adopting method or technique in child rearing as well as teaching so as to bridge the gap of variation in academic Performance and how to organize students in such a way that they are all carried along academically no mater his or her family condition.

The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6 Scope of the study

This study will find out if parent educational level affect academic achievement of the student. The study will also examine if family size influences students academic achievement. Lastly, the study will evaluate the level to which family type affect the academic achievement of students. Hence this study will be delimited to Rivers State.

1.7 Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Academic Achievement: Refers to the level of schooling must successfully complete. Another ability to attain success in studies.

Home environment: aspects of peoples domestic lives that contribute to their living conditions.

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