One of the most significant and plentiful components of the ecosystem is water. Water is a necessity for the survival and development of every living thing on Earth. Rarely does it appear in nature in its purest form (Ababio, 2005). The only substance that naturally exists in all three states of matter—gas, liquid, and solid—on Earth is this one. The Earth has liquid oceans, solid ice covers the poles, and gaseous water vapor, a greenhouse gas that traps heat radiated from the planet’s surface and gives the planet its warmth. Liquid water in oceans, lakes, and rivers absorbs energy from the sun and gains enough energy for some of it to evaporate and enter the atmosphere as water vapour, a gas that is invisible. The water vapor cools as it ascends through the atmosphere, condensing into minute liquid droplets that scatter light and manifest as clouds. When the right circumstances arise, these droplets further combine and get heavy enough to precipitate (fall out) as liquid drops or, if the air is cold enough, as flakes of solid. This process brings water back to the Earth’s surface to continue the cycle between its condensed and vapor phases. The Hydrologic cycle is the name given to this cycle.


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