APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN A SOAP PRODUCTION PLANT

Abstract

This study focuses on the application of environmental management systems in soap manufacturing factories. An environmental management system (EMS) is a tool for implementing a structured program for continuous improvement of the environmental management system. It is a tool for managing the impact of an organization’s activities in the soap industry. It offers a structural approach and the implementation of environmental protection measures. EMS is also a systematic approach to incorporating energy and environmental goals and priorities (such as energy use and regulatory compliance) into daily operations. This research established that the main causes of environmental management systems in soap production plants include climate change, water availability, pollution, waste generation and disposal are among the leading challenges in this regard. Based on the constraints and causes, the following conclusions were draw, overall demand for soaps and detergents depends on multiple factors and results in wide swings in production volume, making capacity planning difficult, consumer demand is influenced by population growth, particularly of households with children; commercial demand is driven by the health of the hotel, restaurant and hospital industries. Recommendations were drawn based on the causes and conclusions, implement reasonable actions for prevention of pollution of air, water, soil and minimize the impact of any pollution which is accidental or unavoidable, use energy as efficiently as possible during the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity and the operation of its facilities, and promote efficient use of electricity by stakeholders, maintain an adequate level of emergency preparedness in order to respond quickly and effectively to environmental emergencies, recover, reduce, identification of significant environment impacts-a company should undertake an analysis of its activities in order to define the areas where it has most impact, for example energy consumption, emissions to air, water pollution, waste, water consumption, draft an environmental policy stating the company’s intentions and its commitment to compliance with legal and other applicable requirements, and its commitment to continual improvement of its environmental performance through pollution prevention and reuse and recycle waste materials whenever feasible in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0INTRODUCTION

The domestic and industrial soap throughout the world is improving very fast with diversifying through great innovation and quality with each day in its business into variety of products and services. Soap products like soap noodles, detergents, dish-wash bars, bath soaps, liquid soap, body shower, gel etc. It has become an indispensable part of everyone’s daily life. These products in the product line are a unique feature of sales across the global value chain, coming from diverse processing sources. Soap enters the market through various processes such as: B. Mixing, duplex, steel frames for slicing cakes, cooling pans for pastes, scalding and packaging of beef. This chain includes forward integration with transportation to get the finished product to retailers and ultimately to customers. The finished product reaches the final customer through a network of numerous production processes and industrial participation and supply he value chains. The most important thing in gaining know-how about the soap manufacturing value chain is to highlight the problems faced by soap companies. We have achieved a level of quality comparable to that of multinational companies, recognizing constraints from the basic level of purchasing raw materials to converting them into high quality final products for our customers.

1.1 Research background

Environmental Management System (EMS) A concept based on continuous improvement of all aspects of a company’s environmental performance. According to Khanna and Anton (2002), EMS is “a voluntary effort to internalize environmental externalities by adopting management practices that integrate organizational change within firms and decisions about the environment and production. It represents a commitment, which identifies opportunities to reduce pollution and presents them to companies, enabling continuous “improvements in production methods and environmental performance”. Environmental management system standards have been developed and refined over the years (Brorson and Larsson, 1999). The British Standards Institution (BSI) introduced the first standard for environmental management (BS 7750) in 1992. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) introduced the ISO 14000 series in September 1996 to specify requirements for EMS (Clements, 1996; Brorson and Larsson, 1999). Clement (1996) states that the standard applies to “any aspect of the environment under which the enterprise controls or can be expected to influence”. Aboulnaga (1998) pointed out that the introduction and use of EMS can be a competitive advantage for the soap industry and organizations wishing to compete on the international stage. Roy and Vezina (2001) also show that environmental efforts can be used to increase the innovative capacity of soap production. Sheldon (1997) also shows that ISO 14001 has been warmly welcomed by people in government, business and academia. The standard is recognized as useful worldwide and bodes well for the future of environmental management (Moxen and Strachan, 2000). Other proponents of ISO 14001 such as Stapleton et al. (2001) argued that standards could serve as a framework for significantly improving business performance.

Soap is an essential part of modern society, and it is hard to imagine the time will come when perfume will smell sweet instead of soap. However, although soap has been made for over 2,500 years, it is only recently that it is now in widespread use.The first recorded production of soap dates back to 600 BC. It was well known among the Celts in England and throughout the Roman Empire when Pliny the Elder described it as being manufactured by the Phonesians from the tallow and ashes of goats. It wasn’t until the 2nd century AD that soap was used for cleaning, and it wasn’t until the 19th century that soap became more commonly used in the Western world. At the beginning of this century, the first synthetic detergents were produced and have now replaced soap in many applications.

Soap is very common in our society. Soap is the product of the reaction between fat and sodium hydroxide.

warmth

RCOOR’ + NaOH R’OH + RCOO-Na+.

Soap is manufactured industrially in four basic steps. In this study, we list a variety of steps, as each one takes place through several process steps in the industrial process described, but in principle there are three: saponification, glycerin removal, soap refining and finishing. You can do it step by step.

All soaps contain surfactants as active ingredients. It is an ionic species consisting of a long, linear, non-polar “tail” with a positive or anionic “head” and a counterion. The tail does not dissolve in water, the head dissolves in water. This solubility difference has two important implications. First, this makes the surfactant molecule a wetting agent.
The tail moves and aligns with the solid.

A water interface that lowers the surface tension at that point and penetrates the fabric better. The oil stain particles then form an emulsion with water.
The tails of many surfactant molecules surround the oily dirt particle, forming a micelle with an oil droplet in the center and the ionic heads of the surfactant molecules facing outward, keeping the micelle in a polar solution. The soap industry around the world is diversifying and improving very rapidly into a wide variety of products and services through great innovation and quality in the business day-to-day.Soap noodles, laundry detergent, dish soap, bath soap and liquid soap. , body shower gels and other soap products have become an important part of our daily lives. These products in our product line are unique selling points that we sell all over the world. These products are the best sources in the value chain stemming from various processing sources. Soap enters the market through various processes such as: B. Blending, duplexing, steel frames for slicing cakes, cooling pans for pastes, boiling beef, and packaging. The chain includes forward integration with the transportation and packaging industry, delivering finished products to retailers and ultimately customers.

Vertical integration:
A strategy used by a company to manage its suppliers or distributors in order to increase its power in the market, reduce transaction costs, and secure supply or distribution channels. Vertical integration has two sides: backwards and forwards. In the backward relationship, raw material processing companies are closely tied to their suppliers and subcontractors. Manufacturers and customers make their specifications available to subcontractors, vendors, and suppliers. Faisalabad’s soap companies have positive relationships with distributors, wholesalers and retailers as part of the country’s value chain. The order flow and specification process begins with the buyer ordering and specifying the product after overseeing the manufacturing process.

Horizontal integration:
The process by which a company acquires or merges with competitors, usually in the same industry. As seen in Faisalabad, there are two types of his horizontal relations, bilateral and multilateral. The former exists between two of his companies trading the same product. Note that such connections are rare in Faisalabad, mainly due to lack of trust and fierce competition between businesses. The latter exists between two or more companies to achieve a common goal. With the establishment of the Faisalabad Soap Manufacturers Association (FSMA) from the Pakistan Soap Manufacturers Association (PSMA) in 1990, there has been an increase in the number of companies within the Faisalabad soap cluster as seen on various occasions. There is strong evidence of multilateral horizontal linkages in We faced quality problems by multinational companies, the existence of dry ports in international facilities, and the development of FIA (Faisalabad International Airport) by FCCI.

There is fierce competition between companies within the cluster. Most companies produce inferior products. Small business organizational structures lack facilities and businesses are run by the entrepreneurs themselves or by junior managers. Entrepreneurs lack managerial and technical skills and this is one of the reasons he is.

• Main activities

• Outreach.

Main activities are:

Accumulation of resources (local, foreign, or both)

・Manufacturing (mixers, duplexes, cutting pans, bubbling cows, etc.)

・Packaging and quality control

• Distribution.

Support activities include:

・Equipment and technology

· HRD and management support

Fixed infrastructure

・Physical support

A significant benefit associated with value chain networking is the continuous improvement in member performance and productivity. The soap value chain is a perfect fit, which improves the structure, design and supply of the soap industry. These primary and ancillary activities add value to the process of transforming raw materials into final soap products. Figure 1.1 shows the process of the soap industry value chain.

Environmental Management System “EMS” A systematic approach to incorporating energy and environmental goals and priorities (such as energy use and regulatory compliance) into daily operations. Organizations that need to meet energy and environmental requirements as part of their daily operations have some kind of de facto system, but it is widely accepted as a valuable step to formalize their approach through documentation. There is growing evidence that system documentation not only ensures consistency across the workforce over time, but is of great value in defining a systematic approach to managing energy and environmental goals. I’m here.

1.2 Importance of research

An environmental management system is a tool for managing the impact of an organization’s activities on the soap industry. It offers a structural approach and the implementation of environmental protection measures.

Environmental concerns can be traced back to pre-Biblical times. However, Pickering and Owen (1997) gave concrete meaning for the first time at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden in June 1972. An opportunity to reach consensus on managing the planet. A key outcome of the conference was the 27 principles accepted by all 171 countries. It was this awakening that prompted governments around the world, including Ghana, to take concrete steps to protect, manage and improve the environment (EPA, 1994). The Government of Ghana has set up an agency to manage the environment since the Stockholm conference. According to EPA (2002), the purpose of environmental management is to “identify human activities that may threaten or affect environmental quality, take timely mitigation measures to manage those impacts, and It’s about keeping the expected impacts within limits, which we need to manage before they become a problem and to optimize environmental protection.”

Similar to a financial management system, an EMS monitors the environmental performance of costs and revenues and allows regular reviews of a company’s performance. EMS integrates environmental management into a company’s daily operations, long-term planning and quantity control systems.

Because soap is designed to be flushed down the drain once used, the environmental impact of its production is not expected to be as great as many other chemical processes. My two main concerns are:
Safe transportation and storage of raw materials and minimization of losses

EMS is becoming increasingly important for both domestic and multinational manufacturing companies. Underlying its emergence and acceptance is the premise that improved systems related to EMS will be more capable of achieving strategic goals.

Through the systematic approach of EMS, the industry can define and implement organizational environmental policies, ensure compliance with relevant environmental laws and regulations, identify and manage environmental impacts, and continuously improve environmental performance. can be achieved. If a company properly designs and sizes his EMS to the scale of its operations, the implementation of an EMS will enable management to understand and track its environmental performance, thereby improving its performance. behavior can be developed and implemented.

An EMS not only requires an understanding of the regulatory framework in which an organization operates, but also incorporates those specific requirements into controls designed to address specific tasks and risks. By implementing an EMS, organizations will be able to collect data that was previously uncollectable. Examples are water consumption, energy consumption and amount of waste generated. In addition, this data helps us respond to both regulators and the market. This challenge arises especially in developing or transitional countries with immature or evolving environmental regulatory frameworks. A major advantage of EMS is that it can improve organizational performance in developing countries where regulatory frameworks and other factors are less robust.

1.3 Problem Description

According to the EPA, he has more than 5,000 manufacturing companies in the country, half of which are classified as medium to large. About 60% of these are in the Lagos metropolitan area (EPA, 2002). These industries have had a significant impact on the local economy and the country as a whole. The concentration of industry in such a small area exacerbates the pressure on the environment from industrial activity. Major issues include liquid and solid industrial waste, air and water pollution. Soap makers need to identify different sources of raw materials from different parts of the world such as terrorism, animal skins, acids, oils, fats, silicates, toxins, caustic soda, etc. Local sources of raw materials are ubiquitous, but not sufficient to compete with the big brands.Many small, medium and small soap companies mass produce, which is good for local raw materials. there is a market.

Inputs (raw materials) from various markets are supplied to the soap company’s production units for processing. The raw materials are processed with chemicals and equipment, usually locally manufactured, that process the raw materials and turn them into semi-finished soaps for use in processing units. Soap makers face major constraints due to technical and financial issues. Shortages of technical capacity, financial resources, unskilled labor, etc. are the main reasons for limiting the finished product process according to demand and market demands. At this point, multinational companies are scoring in the market by producing high quality, standard soap product lines that help them capture maximum profit from the market. For local manufacturers, finished products are imported from various countries at higher prices for domestic use, creating an imbalance.

Soap makers don’t market using traditional marketing techniques such as billboards and cable TV advertising, but few large companies can compete equally with multinational advertising approaches. Soap companies pay close attention to the demands of retailers when it comes to advertising and promotion to their customers. Soap companies should focus on their competitive advantage through marketing and quality assurance.

Soap companies invest very little in the packaging of their products. Most soap companies outsource their packaging. In most cases, companies copy each other’s brands to compete in the market, causing setbacks in local industries. Soap makers need to expand domestically and conquer international markets through exports. If a manufacturer focuses on marketing, it can have extensive knowledge of the domestic market, a wide range of network channels, and international agents and intermediaries to manage its chain of value. Despite the large market of raw material suppliers and soap product buyers, manufacturers have failed to seize opportunities and conquer domestic and international markets. is the energy crisis that has plagued the industry. Load shedding due to power and gas shortages is putting this potential industry into recession. In addition, the incompetence of local manufacturers, underdeveloped infrastructure, and advocacy efforts limit quality improvement, forcing even the domestic market to compete with multinational soap giants from overseas markets. Support activities such as technology and equipment upgrades are the most important factor in the soap value chain process. Lack of modern equipment and technology in the local market limits companies from producing competitive products. There are no vocational schools in Nigeria specifically graduating with the latest knowledge of soap machinery and equipment. The lack of skilled and experienced manpower to handle soap units acts as a disadvantage to supply value chain processes. Irregular and expensive supplies of raw materials also cause major problems leading to large losses and business closures. In recent years, SMEs have faced a severe recession due to expensive raw materials, energy crises and strikes. In short, lack of material supplies, lack of funding, lack of R&D facilities, lack of IT support, lack of knowledge of modern soap factories, and unskilled labor force are all factors that contribute to the growth and development of the soap industry. is shrinking. A soap industry value chain that achieves the highest levels of productivity and quality is based on these supporting activities and helps identify potential for growth and expansion in domestic and international markets.

1.4 Purpose and objectives of the research

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the application of environmental management systems in domestic and industrial soap manufacturing plants.

To achieve these goals, the following are answered.

· Identify current environmental management practices in the Nigerian soap industry.

· Provides the current status of adoption of the ISO 14001 standard in Nigeria. · Identify key drivers for the adoption of EMS practices in Nigeria.

· Identify the main challenges organizations face in achieving ISO 14001 certification.

· Access compliance levels for local environmental regulations.

・Conduct a targeted baseline assessment to determine what is really important to the organization in terms of environmental performance

· Review the current state of the environment.

· Application of economic instruments for industrial environmental management and review of their effectiveness.

Environmental Management Systems – Provides an overview of environmental management systems, a description of the elements of the ISO 14001 standard, and his three levels of EMS implementation.

1.5 Survey scope

The study is limited to Nigerian domestic and industrial soap manufacturing companies only, focuses solely on verification of industry compliance with existing key environmental regulations, and does not include other environmental laws. M. Additionally, this study primarily examines the use of economic instruments in industrial environmental management in Nigeria.

 

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