The overall goal of this study is to offer a picture of malaria and typhoid co-infection among people who go to Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State. Blood samples were collected using the venepunture technique. A total of 250 patients were investigated, with 113 men and 137 females having clinical suspicion of malaria and typhoid fever. Malaria parasites were detected in the samples using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Widal reagents and the cultural approach were used to diagnose typhoid fever in each sample. Descriptive statistics were used to present the findings of this investigation. The data was examined using Chisquare and percentages. In conclusion, the study’s findings suggest that the malaria prevalence rate in PHCC Tella is considerable (80.8 percent). Co-infection with malaria and typhoid fever was also very common (28.0 percent). For the diagnosis of typhoid fever, there was a significant result mismatch between the widal test (46.8%) and blood culture (0.8%). The study concluded that if the diagnosis of typhoid fever by cultural approach is emphasized in our clinical hospital laboratories, the incidence of typhoid and malaria co-infection might be decreased to a bare minimum. This will also enhance patient management by lowering treatment costs and eliminating other dangers linked with antibiotic abuse.




Malaria is a fever illness caused by Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted to humans by the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria has been the subject of numerous declarations and a variety of aims since the millennium began, owing to the fact that malaria affects almost half of the world’s population. (World Health Organization, 2015). Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by five species of Plasmodium parasites: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi, according to Ukaegbu et al., (2014).

Approximately 3.3 billion people in 97 nations and territories are at risk of contracting malaria and developing illness, with 1.2 billion at high risk. In 2013, an estimated 198 million cases of malaria were reported worldwide, with 584,000 fatalities, showing a 30 percent and 47 percent decline in malaria case incidence and mortality rates, respectively, since 2000. (WHO, 2013 and 2014). It is regarded as a poverty-related disease and is officially recognized as a public health issue with far-reaching medical, social, and economic consequences (Isah et al., 2011). Within endemic countries, the poorest and most disadvantaged communities suffer the most, with the highest malaria risks and the least access to efficient malaria prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services (World Bank, 2014). Typhoid fever, or simply “typhoid,” is a symptomatic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi, commonly known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Modebe et al., 2014; Wain et al., 2015). It is contracted by ingesting food and/or water contaminated with an infected person’s feces, which contain the Salmonella enteric serovar typhi bacterium; humans are the only ones who are infected (Ukaegbu et al., 2014). Poverty as a result of poor sanitation and hygiene are risk factors (Wain et al., 2015). Between 2000 and 2010, there were an estimated 21.7 million and 13.5 million typhoid fever cases, respectively. Between 2000 and 2013, it is estimated that 217,000 and 161,000 people died (Crump et al., 2010; Buckle et al., 2013).

In South-Central and Southeast Asia, infants, children, and adolescents bear the brunt of sickness (Crump et al., 2004). Nonetheless, typhoid fever outbreaks are commonly observed in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia (Muyembe et al, 2009 and Baddam et al, 2012).

Co-illnesses are widespread as a result of the geographical overlap of both infections. However, the exact incidence of concurrent malaria and typhoid fever in most geographical areas is largely unknown, as both diseases share social circumstances that are critical to their transmission; individuals in areas where both diseases are endemic are at significant risk of contracting both diseases, either concurrently or as an acute infection superimposed on a chronic infection (Keong et al., 2006).


Malaria and typhoid fever continue to be serious public health concerns in tropical Africa, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases are prevalent in many parts of the world where the predominant environmental characteristics are a warm, humid climate, inadequate sanitation, poverty, and ignorance. Poverty and underdevelopment have been linked to these two diseases (Ammon, 2013). Malaria and typhoid fever have a lot of symptoms in common, especially in the early stages of the disease (Ammah et al., 1999; Ohanu et al., 2003). While the high frequency of malaria is well known, an exceptionally high proportion of patients have been confirmed as malaria co-existing with typhoid fever in the recent decade. The condition frequently poses a diagnostic challenge and, in some situations, may result in diagnostic ambiguity. As a result, the need of a definite laboratory-based diagnosis cannot be stressed; before an individual can be diagnosed with concurrent malaria and typhoid fever, laboratory results must show the presence of Plasmodium species and Salmonella enteric subsp enterica serotype typhi (Uneke 2006). As a result, the purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of malaria and typhoid co-infection among people who attend Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State.


The overall goal of this study is to offer a picture of malaria and typhoid co-infection among people who go to Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State. The study’s objectives are as follows:

To find out how often malaria and typhoid fever are among those who attend Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State.


In Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA Taraba State, the rate of co-infection was investigated in relation to the use of widal test and blood culture methods for diagnosing typhoid fever.


To determine the overall prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever co-infections among patients at the Tela PHCC in Taraba State’s Gassol LGA.


What is the malaria and typhoid fever prevalence among those who attend Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State?

What is the rate of malaria and typhoid co-infection in patients attending Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA Taraba State who were diagnosed with typhoid using the widal test and blood culture methods?

In patients at Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA Taraba State, what is the total prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever infections?


Patients, ministries of health, hospitals, policymakers, and health practitioners would benefit from the findings of this study. The findings of the study will aid health practitioners in providing proper care and planning for patients in clinics who are being treated for malaria and typhoid. This research will aid policymakers in developing appropriate malaria and typhoid prevention programs. This study will benefit the government and parastatals by educating them on the need for a coordinated health education intervention to improve Taraba State residents’ attitudes and knowledge about poor health seeking behavior and adequate malaria and typhoid prevention strategies, particularly with the use of insecticides, treated nets, and adequate funding, among other things.


The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of malaria and typhoid co-infection among people who go to Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State. The study will also look into the factors that cause malaria and typhoid infection. The study will also look at the rate of malaria and typhoid co-infection in those who visit Tela PHCC in Gassol LGA, Taraba State, using the widal test and blood culture methods for typhoid diagnosis.


Financial constraints– A lack of funds impedes the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data gathering procedure (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will be working on this subject while also doing other academic tasks. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

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