CHAPTER ONEĀ 

INTRODUCTION

Because microorganisms are so common, the human body has evolved a natural defense system to counteract their negative effects (Pick et al, 2008). The body defense system, also known as the “IMMUNE SYSTEM,” is made up of a complex network of specialized cells, glands, organs, specialized proteins, and molecular messengers. This immune system prevents bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, and any other external antibodies from over multiplying inside the body and causing harm to the body system and processes (Godfrey et al, 2006).

The immune system, which is the body’s natural defense system against invading pathogens, protects the body from illness and uses a complex network of interconnected cells and cytokines to communicate an individual’s well-being (Tang et al, 2009).

Despite the fact that this system is part of the host’s protection, an uncontrolled immune system has the potential to cause detrimental consequences in the host (Walter 2007; Kushner, 2003). As a result, immune system modulation must be well-controlled in order to avoid autoimmune reactions (Morran et al, 2008).

The immune system has evolved over time to distinguish the distinction between ‘Self and non-self’ cells in order to defend the body against invading invaders. The ability to become self-tolerant to the body’s own proteins and antigens is essential for a healthy immune system to function correctly (Bruce et al, 2010). In immunological warfare, an immune system that lacks tolerance for “Self” cells loses its ability to distinguish between “friends” and “foes” (Kushner, 2003; Walter, 2007). The immune system is made up of two distinct parts or branches, each with its own set of responsibilities. The body’s initial line of defense against invading microorganisms is the innate immune system. This system identifies pathogen structural components and triggers an immunological response to alert the immune system to the presence of pathogens and illnesses (Mayer, 2006). The adaptive immune system is the body’s second line of defense, and it primarily targets infections that have been recognized. This system is antigen-specific and builds immunological memory in the host, allowing for more efficient pathogen clearance when the pathogens are exposed again (Agerbeth and Gudmundson, 2011). Despite the fact that these two immune systems are considered separate branches of the immune system, they must operate together to defend the body (Ogawa and Calhoun, 2010).

The immune system not only protects the host, but it also has the power to harm it. Over time, a variety of autoimmune disorders have been identified (Godfrey et al, 2006; Pick up et al, 2008; Morran et al, 2008). Due to heredity, cellular malfunctions, or cell signaling functions, the autoimmune system causes changes in the immune system’s functioning, which leads to the development and pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as diabetes mellitus (Von and Oldstone, 1997).

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body is unable to maintain normal blood glucose levels, resulting in a variety of negative consequences (Shoback et al, 2011). Insulin has a crucial role in glucose metabolism. Insulin sends a signal to cells when it is released. Diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and kills the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas’ Islets of Langerhans (Delovitch and Singh, 2012). Individuals with diabetes mellitus develop the clinical state due to a lack of insulin. Autoantibody synthesis and gradual infiltration of immune cells into the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas are hallmarks of diabetes mellitus, which is followed by the death of the Islets cells (Bardsley and Want, 2004). The autoimmune damaging process in diabetes mellitus proceeds in a cell-mediated organ-specific manner, according to studies employing human and murine models of diabetes (Nepom, 1995; Yoon and Jun, 2001). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition for which there is no cure unless in rare circumstances (Janeway, 2007). Diabetes mellitus is managed medically by focusing on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal (euglycemia) as feasible without inducing hypoglycemia (Delovitch and Singh, 2012). Diet, exercise, and the use of proper medications are typically enough to achieve this (insulin). A mixture of conventional neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and synthetic insulin analogs is usually used to treat diabetes mellitus (Ripson et al, 2009).

AIM OF THE STUDY

Given that diabetes mellitus is thought to be linked to the immune system, it’s worth investigating what the state of the body’s defense system might be in diabetic and non-diabetic settings.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

As a preliminary investigation of the body defense system, the study will look into differential white blood cell counts and serum globulin levels.

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