BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) IN AGEING MEN ATTENDING CLINIC

ABSTRACT

In this study, aging men presenting to the clinic at the university of Nigeria teaching hospital in Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria were examined for biochemical changes related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. In addition to 50 healthy men, there were 50 BPH patients in the assessment (control). Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: BPH patients 60 years, on treatment, Group 3: BPH patients 60 years, not on treatment, Group 4: BPH patients 60 years, taking treatment, and Group 5: BPH patients 60 years, not on treatment. All samples were divided into 5 groups with varying age ranges. When compared to the control, the PSA levels of BPH positive subjects receiving treatment increased significantly (p 0.05). Subjects under the age of 60 had a significantly (p 0.05) higher level of calcium. years older than group 1 but receiving treatment (control). Additionally, when compared to the normal control, the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) showed high significance (p 0.05). In the same study, sodium levels in the blood of positive treated and untreated BPH patients were non-significantly (p > 0.05) high when compared to healthy subjects, and zinc levels decreased non-significantly (p > 0.05) in the groups under investigation. Subjects under the age of 60 who were receiving treatment had an elevated iron level, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) compared to the other groups under investigation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The benign enlargement of the prostate gland is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It describes stromal and glandular epithelial hyperplasia that develops in the region of the prostate that surrounds the urethra known as the periurethral transition zone. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that include irritative (urgency, frequency, nocturia) and obstructive symptoms (hesitancy, a weak and interrupted urinary stream, straining to initiate urination, a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying) are how BPH is clinically manifested (Miller and Tarter, 2009). Acute urinary retention (AUR), recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), hematuria, bladder calculi, and renal insufficiency are all potential outcomes of long-term obstructions (Curtis, 2006). As people get older, LUTS caused by BPH are more common. 80% of men experience moderate to severe symptoms after the age of 60 and by the age of 80. with respect to years. By the age of 90, almost all men have microscopic BPH (Ogunbiyi and Shittu, 1999). It is also referred to as a quality-of-life disorder that makes it difficult for a man to start or stop the flow of urine (the symptoms interfere with daily activities) and lowers his sense of wellbeing. Although the exact causes of BPH are unknown, a number of factors, including aging, late cell growth activation, genetics, and hormonal changes, have been linked to the overgrowth of smooth muscle and glandular epithelial tissue (Wang and Jicun, 2015).

1.1Epidemiology

A histological diagnosis known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of connective tissue, smooth muscle, and glandular epithelium within the prostatic transition zone (Auffenberg et al., 2009). A glandular element made up of secretory ducts and acini and a stromal element primarily made up of collagen and smooth muscle make up the two basic components of prostate tissue. Cellular proliferation in BPH results in an increase in prostate volume and stromal smooth muscle tone. The progression of BPH has two phases, according to McNeal (1984).

 

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