The biological treatment of wastewater from Abuja’s Wupa Wastewater Treatment Plant was studied. Wastewater samples were taken from the treatment plant’s input and effluent points (before and after the ultra violet radiation unit). Temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured as physicochemical characteristics. The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were calculated using standard procedures provided by the American Public Health Association from samples collected at the influent and effluent points (APHA). Total Coliform Count (TCC), Total Bacteriological Count (TBC), and Faecal Count were used to examine the water samples for the presence of bacterial organisms (FC). The % elimination efficiency of ultra violet radiation for TCC, TBC, and FC was calculated at the conclusion of the study. The mean removal efficiency for TCC, TBC, and FC was 99.6 percent, 89.9 percent, and 98.9 percent, respectively, all within the World Health Organization and Federal Ministry of Environment’s permissible limits. COD was reduced by 81.5 percent, while BOD was reduced by 98.9%, meeting the required effluent limits. The pH, TSS, DO, COD, and BOD of the influent and effluent were significantly different (P0.05). These findings revealed that there is a pressing need.




Water is an ubiquitous liquid that keeps humans alive as well as all other living things alive. That body, in reality, is known to contain a lot of water and to cover over 60% of the whole land surface. Water is thought to have been the source of life millions of years ago, and no living thing can exist without it today. Water is one of the most common solvents, and it can be found in three states: gaseous, liquid, and solid (Ababio 1990).

As a result, water is beneficial to humans in a variety of ways. It can be used for drinking, which is the most important use of water, or for domestic purposes such as bathing, washing, cleaning, and so on. It can also be utilized in manufacturing enterprises and in agriculture.

Rainwater, spring water, river, lake, and sea water are some of the different types of natural water that exist on the earth’s surface. Because rain water is formed by the condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere, it is regarded the purest of all natural water.

Spring water, on the other hand, erupts from the bottom of sloppy ground where the water table is below the surface level, in an aquifer from which the water can escape (Fawole 1980).

Water with few bacteria, on the other hand, may be regarded safe as long as pathogens and toxic chemicals are not present. Nonetheless, the types and quality of microorganisms present in water impact its quality. Microbes may be present in certain natural water.

Some water is utilized in homes, factories, and other places and is termed waste water. These waste waters can be biologically cleaned and reused. The most frequent approach for treating water before it is discharged into communities is biological waste water treatment.

Biological waste water treatment systems are made up of a series of reaction vessels that are designed with the right amount of mixing energy, retention time, and nutrient addition to create the best possible environment for biological avidity, resulting in the removal of nitrates, heavy metals, ammonia, and biochemically oxidizable organic mixture as the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

More specifically, Thomas E. Schultz (us filter) explains how bacteria and other microorganisms can be used to remove toxins by digesting them. When it comes to biological waste water treatment, there are a few things to consider. According to Thomas, understanding the source of waste water generated, typical waste water composition discharge requirements, and events and practices within a facility that can affect the quality and quantity of waste water, as well as pretreatment ramification consideration of these factors will allow you to maximize the benefits of your plant gains from effective biological treatment.


The primary goal of this study is to conduct research on how biological waste water will be treated in order to fulfill standards that will allow it to be reused by the final consumer, as well as to acquire and develop a deeper understanding of biological waste water treatment. The following are the objectives of this research:

1. How can biological waste water be processed so that it can be reused?

2. To select the most acceptable practical and method for dealing with biological waste water.

3. To conserve a significant amount of water

4. To list the many ways for treating water that are appropriate.

5. To obtain clean water for users using appropriate equipment.


In general, this research focuses on all waste water in Nigeria, with a preference for biological treatment methods. Actually, this will demonstrate what waste water treatment really entails.

The study also includes water that contains a few bacteria that may be harmful compounds. It also explains how waste water is formed, such as water from homes, factories, and other sources that are considered waste water, and proposes a treatment strategy. The goal of this research is to treat waste water using biological methods.


With all of the information obtained from various tests, it is clear that water must be treated before use, and that this treatment can be traced back to a combination of factors such as funds, self-interest, seasons, and conditions.

As a result, this research tells a detailed account on how to increase the pace at which water is thoroughly cleaned before use.


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