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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Financial institutions in Nigeria used to do practically all of their transactions manually to allow customers to complete their financial transactions and other banking activities. Customers must form a line, which consumes a significant amount of time and is not always efficient. As a result of this, and the rapid adoption of IT in Nigeria, the bank has begun to use an electronic device known as an Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to conduct transactions without the presence of a bank delegate. An automated teller machine (ATM) is a mechanical device that has its origins in a bank’s accounts and records. It is a machine that enables bank customers to conduct banking transactions such as deposits, transfers, and withdrawals. Since its inception in Nigeria about ten years ago, the ATM has been the preferred method of financial transaction for the majority of Nigerians. The public’s growing acceptance of ATMs has necessitated ongoing development and enhancement of the system’s security and integrity. The use of an ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) is beneficial for financial transactions. Inserting the ATM card and inputting the PIN (Personal Identification Number) of that specific card initiates an ATM transaction. Despite the fact that banks allow consumers to choose their PIN, this system is not secure because anyone with the card and PIN number can access the system. If the code is legitimate, the system grants access to the account owner at the security level that he or she has chosen. PIN’s strength as a security system is weakened, and the chances of the code being leaked to others are great. Due to fraudsters’ advances and technological breakthroughs, it is now possible to install ATM Card scanners in ATM machines to obtain encoded information from ATM cards, which is then used to duplicate the card and make fraudulent transactions. The existing system’s biggest hindrance is this. The authentication approach used by traditional ATM systems has certain drawbacks. It is not possible to use an ATM card with a password.

Confirm the client’s identify to a tee.
Protect the cardholder from identity theft.
Fraudsters can easily obtain the PIN and use it to make fraudulent transactions.

Protect customers from security flaws and the rising tide of illegal activity at automated teller machines (ATMs.)

This has necessitated the development of a more secure way of authentication at ATM terminals. Biometric authentication is a technique that could be used to improve ATM security. Fingerprint-based identification is one of the most mature and reliable biometric techniques. Biometric is a Greek word that meaning “measurement of living things.” Bio means “life,” and metric means “measurement of living things.” Both physiological and behavioral parameters are measured through biometrics.

Fingerprint technology is the first biometric science that uses the unique characteristics of a person’s fingerprint to identify or verify their identification. Among other biometric traits, finger print technology is the most widely used, with applications ranging from physical to logical access. Every person has their own qualities and patterns. A Finger Print pattern or sample is made up of lines and gaps, with the lines known as ridges and the spaces between them known as valleys. For verification and authorization, these ridges and valleys are matched. These distinct finger print characteristics are known as “minutiae,” and comparisons are performed based on them.

Because biometric authentication provides various advantages over conventional authentication methods, there has been a substantial increase in the use of biometric based user authentication systems in recent years. Biometrics has the advantage of providing information that is unique to each individual and that:

It can recognize the individual regardless of the passage of time.

It has a powerful authentication system.

It is simple to integrate into an existing system.

There is a very slim possibility that two people will have the same fingerprint.

Fingerprints are currently being employed as security variables during voting and bank account operations, among other things. It’s also utilized to restrict access to highly protected areas such as offices, equipment rooms, and control centers.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The goal of this project is to create an ATM simulator that combines a PIN (Personal Authentication Number) verification system with a biometric finger print system for more secure authentication. The system was created with the following goals in mind.

To investigate the problem with the current password-based system and to provide potential remedies.
To create a payment system simulator with secure authentication using a mix of biometric technologies and a personal identification number (PIN). To evaluate the system’s functioning and robustness using varied customer biometric and PIN data.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Security has become a vital and fundamental tool for every firm in the modern day. When we talk about money, we’re talking about something very important. It’s also a very private matter in the banking system. The main goal of an ATM machine is to protect cash while still providing easy and quick access to it. However, a few security concerns with ATMs have recently surfaced. The significance of this initiative is the enormous value it will provide to bank employees, bank management, and customers in general. It will help bank management lower the massive amount of money wasted to ATM fraud each year. Bank employees’ time spent on ATM fraud instances will also be reduced.Furthermore, there is a sense of mistrust with PINs, and bank clients may feel insecure using them because they are concerned that if they lose their card, someone may discover it and figure out their PIN in some way, allowing them to take their money from the ATM. This project will focus on a consolidated strategy, in which customers insert their card and PIN, and if the PIN is legitimate, access is granted to another security-approved process, such as biometric fingerprint. Customers can make ATM transactions such as deposits, transfers, balance inquiries, mini statements, Fast cash & withdrawals, and more by using a valid PIN and biometric fingerprint.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The goal of this project is to create a model of an automated teller machine that can use a mix of biometric (fingerprint) and password (PIN) based authentication to deliver a more secure online banking transaction on ATM: Only the banking system has been taken over. There will be five main components to the biometric authentication system. Sensor, feature extractor, fingerprint/template database, matcher, and decision module are the components.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Benefits and drawbacks are two sides of the same coin. Biometric ATM is beneficial in every way, yet there are certain drawbacks: –

It is dependent on the user’s willingness to accept it.
Fingerprints that have been worn out or cut due to hard labor or aging may make it difficult to obtain a clear image on which to undertake matching.
The inclusion of biometric devices in ATM machines will reduce ATM machine costs.
Because the simulated system will be written in Visual Basic.Net, it will not be able to run on any operating system other than Microsoft Windows.
The time it takes to complete a transaction will be longer due to the two-step authentication process.
Individuality. While a biometric feature is predicted to differ greatly between people,

DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. Biometric data
The science and technology of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data is known as biometrics.

2. Computer simulations
Simulating the operation of a real-world process or system over time is known as simulation.

3. An ATM (Automated Teller Machine) is an electronic banking outlet that enables customers of various banking institutions to execute basic transactions without the assistance of a bank staff or teller, or without having to physically visit the bank.

4. PIN Personal Identification Number (PIN) is a private numeric password shared by a user and the system that can be used to authenticate the user.

Authentication is number five.
This is the process of identifying a person using a login and password in order to enable them access to a system.

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