The goal of the study is to look into some of the factors that influence police officers’ alcohol consumption in Nigeria. As a result, the study looks into whether personality traits (toughness and aggression) and stress are important predictors of alcohol use among police officers in the Ibadan metropolitan. The Eyesenck Tough-Mindness Scale, Buss and Perry Aggression Scale, International Stress Management Scale, and Chinese Drug Involvement Scale were completed by 500 police personnel, 488 males and 12 females. Toughness of mind and alcohol consumption are favorably and insignificantly connected (r=0.53; p>0.05), according to the findings. ;




Psychoactive chemicals are chemical substances that, when consumed, have the power to alter a person’s awareness, mood, and thought processes (WHO, 2004). Alcohol is one of the most commonly utilized psychoactive chemicals (Chebukaka, 2014; Attah, etal, 2016). People begin experimenting with alcohol, cigarettes, and other hard drugs because it is socially acceptable and serves as a “gateway” to the use of other substances. Peer pressure, a broken family structure, advertising, and an inability to manage stress have all been linked to the use of strong substances, including alcohol (Attah, etal, 2016).

The usage of alcohol has a major negative impact on the world’s population’s health. There has recently been some occupational, moral, and even social justification for consuming alcohol. Consistent and excessive use has been linked to low academic performance and school dropout among kids. Alcohol drinking is intended to provide some people, such as police officers and military personnel, vitality, bravery, courage, and a perception of toughness. In the worldwide scene, alcohol is the major cause of sickness and mortality. The high rate of death in Nigeria, particularly among young people, may be linked to unhealthy lifestyles. Students who drink alcohol engage in a variety of dangerous behaviors that have long-term consequences for their health and academic performance. As the consumption of alcohol rises, so does the prevalence of alcoholism. Heavy drinking can cause depression and liver damage. Furthermore, alcohol affects various regions of the brain, but the memory, coordination, and judgment cells are the most sensitive. Effects in the short term (usually lasts up to 72 hours after heavy use) Students’ academic performance may be hampered by alcohol’s physiological and psychological impacts. Even tiny doses of alcohol impair cognitive capacities, and these effects can last for a long time after the acute effects of alcohol impairment have faded. Alcohol use is linked to poor academic performance in students, as it contributes to students missing classes, failing tests, dropping out of school due to bad marks, and jeopardizing the academic mission of colleges and institutions.

Individual toughness is assumed to be mostly affected by genetics and/or heredity, or by environment and experiences, or both. All options are supported by evidence. Ruth Benedict was a pioneering anthropologist who explored the impact of one’s culture on one’s personality and mental toughness. Individual tough mindness is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that influences his or her cognitions, motives, and behaviors in a variety of contexts.

Anger might be fueled by a sense of betrayal, unrealistic expectations, or recurring angry fantasies. Apart from getting our way, we may unintentionally use anger to blame others for our own failings, to justify abusing others, and to bolster our own declining self-esteem.

Anger and aggressiveness can be triggered by any event that irritates us, especially when we believe someone else is to blame for our loss. The aggressive behavior of police officers in today’s society is a source of concern for everyone. The majority of police personnel are either directly or indirectly involved in this issue. According to Velisiwe (2005), this experience affects not just police officers, but also educators, parents, governmental bodies, representative councils, and the general public. This behavior frequently disrupts the organization’s regular operation and results in an unfavorable work environment. It puts everyone’s life in jeopardy and makes learning and training incredibly difficult.

Over the years, stress has been described in a variety of ways. According to Kazmi, Amjad, and Khan (2008), it was first perceived as environmental pressure, then as a strain within the individual. However, one of the interactions between the situation and the individual is now regarded as a definition (Kazzmi, Amjad, Khan, 2008). When an individual’s resources are insufficient to cope with the demands and stresses of the job scenario, psychological and physical problems follow. As a result, some events are more likely to cause stress than others. Although much is known about stress, according to Acholu (1995), there is no consensus or agreement among scientists on how to define the terminology. Because of the complicated nature of stress, several authors have defined the term “stress” differently.


Adulthood is a period for experimenting with new things. Police officers use drugs for a variety of reasons, including curiosity, stress relief, and a sense of maturity or belonging. They frequently fail to see the link between their actions today and the consequences they will face tomorrow, and they have a tendency to believe they are indestructible and immune to the problems that others face. For example, if a police officer is not properly adjusted at work, they will engage in alcohol misuse rather than adopting other ways that are favorable and pleasant (orientation). For decades, numerous scholars, families, governments, medical practitioners, and legal practitioners have debated the issue of alcohol consumption among police officers. The high prevalence of alcohol usage among police officers in several parts of the world is cause for concern. While intoxication, memory loss, violence, and sexual risk-taking are all linked to present patterns of officer alcohol consumption, data on the long-term consequences of such drinking is still scarce. Many researchers have looked at the causes of police officers drinking. However, this study will look into toughness, aggression, and stress as predictors of police officers drinking, with the goal of finding a better way to assist them in living a healthy lifestyle.


The study’s main goal is to look at character qualities like toughness and violence, as well as stress, as predictors of alcohol use among police officers in the Ibadan Metropolitan Area.

The study’s particular goals are as follows:


The purpose of this study was to look into the link between toughness and alcohol consumption among police personnel in the Ibadan Metropolitan Area.

The purpose of this study was to look into the association between police officers’ violence and their usage of alcohol in the Ibadan Metropolis.

The purpose of this study was to look at the link between stress and alcohol use among police personnel in the Ibadan Metropolitan Area.

To investigate the effects of toughness, aggression, and stress on alcohol use among police officers in the Ibadan Metropolitan Area.


The project aims to answer the following research issues in a relevant way:

What is the link between toughness and alcohol consumption among police officers in Ibadan?
What is the relationship between police officers’ violence and their usage of alcohol in the Ibadan Metropolis?
What is the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption among Ibadan police officers?
What effect does toughness of mind, hostility, and stress have on the usage of alcohol by police officers in the Ibadan Metropolis?


The following are the five hypotheses that were developed to lead the research:

H01: In the Ibadan Metropolis, there is no link between toughness and alcohol consumption among police personnel.

H02: Aggression and alcohol consumption among police officers in Ibadan Metropolis had no significant link.

H03: There is no link between stress and alcohol consumption among police personnel in the Ibadan Metropolitan Area.

H04: Toughness, aggression, and stress have no combined meaningful effect on police officers’ alcohol use in the Ibadan Metropolis.


The conclusions of this study would not benefit the Nigerian police force, parents, paramilitaries, medical and legal professionals, governments at all levels (federal, state, and local), or policymakers in any way. The researcher believes that residents of Oyo State will greatly benefit from this study because it aims to determine whether toughness, aggression, and stress are factors that lead police officers to abuse drugs.

Police and military forces will be better exposed as a result of the findings that their excessive use of drugs has an impact on their personality and family because children learn from their parents who are police officers. It is also well known that at this stage, they have a proclivity for


The goal of the study is to see how toughness, aggression, and stress affect alcohol consumption among police officers in Ibadan. As a result, it is limited to the city of Ibadan in Nigeria’s Oyo state.

The following are some of the study’s limitations.


Control Limitation: The study solely looked at character qualities and stress as predictors of alcohol consumption among police officers in the Ibadan Metropolis, as directed by the project supervisor.

Time Limitation: Given the researcher’s other academic responsibilities, the time allocated to undertake a study of this scope is comparatively insufficient.

Data Limitation: Due to the nature of the topic, which is aimed at police personnel, respondents are typically adamant about taking part in the survey.


The following assumptions govern the research:

The respondents are police officers from the Ibadan Metropolitan Police Force.
Only those who were willing to participate in the survey did so.
That all information provided by respondents is true, accurate, and unbiased, and free of bias.


Aggression is a behavior and attitude trait characterized by hostility, aggression, and rage.

Alcohol use is defined as the excessive use of addictive substances, particularly when such consumption or misuse is not for therapeutic purposes but rather to alter the normal functioning of the mind and body.

Police officers are individuals who work as part of the law enforcement system and are responsible for monitoring criminal activity, participating in community patrols, responding to emergency calls, issuing tickets, making arrests, investigating crimes, and testifying in court when necessary.

Stress is a physiological or psychological reaction to unfavorable psychological or environmental variables at work that are seen as taxing, unsettling, or threatening to an employee’s health.

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