The Fula, also known as Fulani in Hausa, are a large population that is widely dispersed and culturally diverse throughout Africa, but is most prevalent in West Africa. The Fulanis are primarily Fula speakers. Many of them are nomadic in nature, herding cattle, goats, and sheep across vast dry grasslands while remaining isolated from local farming communities, making them the world’s largest pastoral nomadic group (Eyekpimi, 2016). They are widely distributed across many countries, primarily in West Africa and northern Central Africa, but also in Sudan and Egypt. Fulbe Adamawa, Fulbe Mbororo, Fulbe Sokoto, Fulbe Gombe, and Fulbe Borgu are the main Fulani sub-groups in Nigeria (Eyekpimi, 2016).

Nigeria as a country

The nation-state faces a serious internal socioeconomic and security threat. On a broader scale, the threat has distinct economic, political, and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has had a significant impact on the nation’s stability and can be traced back to the conflict between Fulani herders and farmers, ethnic militant armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, insurgency, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage, and environmental degradation (Damba, 2007).

Food security refers to the availability of food and individuals’ access to it. Food security concerns have existed throughout history. Granaries were used over 10,000 years ago, with central authorities in civilizations such as ancient China and ancient Egypt known to release food from storage during times of famine (Illufoye, 2009). At

The term “food security” was defined at the 1974 World Food Conference with an emphasis on supply. They defined food security as “the availability of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs at all times to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices” (United Nations, 2013). Later definitions incorporated demand and access issues. According to the final report of the 1996 World Food Summit, food security “exists when all people have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life at all times” (United Nations, 2015).

Household food security exists when all members have access to enough food at all times. food for an active and healthy lifestyle (USDA, 2008). People who are food secure do not suffer from hunger or fear of starvation (FAO, 2006). According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), food insecurity is defined as “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways” (2008). Food security is a measure of resilience to future disruption or unavailability of critical food supply caused by a variety of risk factors such as droughts, shipping disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, and wars (Boeing, 2016). Between 2011 and 2017 (FAO, 2017), an estimated 842 million people suffered from chronic hunger (FAO, 2017). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) identified four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization, and stability (FAO, 2009). The United Nations (UN) recognized the Right to Food in the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, and has since stated that it is essential for the enjoyment of all other rights (United Nations, 2015). (United Nations, 2015).

Violent conflict and crisis in Nigeria, as in other parts of the world, have strained human relations and posed a serious threat to food security, among other consequences (Basil, 2015). As long as we live together, there will be crises, especially in a multi-ethnic, cultural, and religious community like Nigeria. However, violence causes various forms of retardation and underdevelopment as a result of the destruction of lives and farmland.

as well as possession. In the last two decades, the threat of violent crisis conflict has grown in many Nigerian cities (Ilufoye, 2009). The majority of these conflicts are characterized by ethno-religious bigotry and antagonism.

According to Kassam (2014) and Basil (2015), most conflicts in Nigeria, particularly those between Fulani herdsmen and farmers, are uncalled for. Fulani herdsmen have made it impossible for farmers to farm peacefully. These clashes between Fulani herders and farmers have pitted Christians and Muslims against one another. The conflict has wreaked havoc on inter-group relations, particularly in Nasarawa Egor in Nasarawa State and Agatu L.G.A in Benue State. Apart from the loss of lives, farmlands, food produce, and property, it has a significant impact on residential areas.

relationships, resulting in new trends in community polarization. This can be seen in the physical manifestation of mono-religious areas in Nasarawa and Benue States, where Christians and Muslims coexist in dominant religious clusters (Eyekpemi, 2016).

Recent studies conducted by Basil (2015) and Ekpeyemi (2016) revealed that serious conflict erupted between Fulani herdsmen and farmers, resulting in the loss of lives, valuable properties, and the destruction of vast expanses of arable agricultural farmlands, posing a serious threat to food security because farmers could no longer go to farm and harvest their farm produce for fear of attack. Recent attacks by Fulani herdsmen have increased, with the most recent attacks in June 2016 taking place in the Ossissa community in Ndokwa East and the Abraka community in Ndokwa West. Delta State’s Ethiope East Local Government Areas and three more communities (Ugondo, Turan, and Gabo Nenzev) in Benue State’s Logo Local Government Area, with a total of 60 people killed (Ekpeyemi, 2016). The Federal Government recently ordered an investigation, a military crackdown on the group, and reaffirmed its plans to establish cattle ranches as a solution to the frequent clashes in Nigeria between Fulani herdsmen and farmers (Basil, 2015). In recent times, the killings committed by Fulani herdsmen and farmers have ravaged most communities, displacing them from their farmlands and threatening their main source of income. With the Fulani herdsmen always having their own ways and leaving the farmers at their mercy, this is becoming unbearable. Farmers now go to the farm armed with weapons for protection.

defense in the event of an attack (Ekpeyemi, 2016).

Several deaths and casualties have recently been reported in a series of clashes between Fulnai herdsmen and farmers. Most people attribute the conflict between Fulani herders and farmers to religious differences between Muslims and Christians (Basil, 2015). Several farmlands have been destroyed as a result of the conflict between farmers and herdsmen. Herdsmen blame the crisis on religious differences, which resulted in the slaughter of their cows, whereas farmers see the herdsmen as a threat to their crops and agricultural produce because the herdsmen allow their cows to feed on the farmer crops. Evidence suggests that herdsmen and farmers clash in several parts of Nigeria, particularly in the states of Nassarawa, Delta, Edo, and Benue. This could be due to religious differences between herdsmen and farmers. Several lives and farmlands have been lost as a result of this crisis (Ekpeyemi, 2016). Recently, in Abraka, Fulani herdsmen attacked farmers on the farm and killed one, causing Abrakans to riot. Due to this saga, the Ovie of Abraka Kingdom (HRM Akpomedaye Majoroh II) declared a state of emergency on the Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash on April 23, 2017 in an attempt to restore peace to the community. This study is being conducted against this backdrop to investigate the effects of the Fulani herdsmen-farmers crisis on food security in the Abraka region.


Nigeria is seriously threatened by the Fulani herdsmen and farmer crisis, and is thus regarded as a major potential threat affecting Nigerians primarily on the part of the country’s socioeconomic activities (Egodi, 2010). The Fulani herdsmen and farmers crisis is a major impediment to a successful national economy. Fulani herdsmen and farmers have become a major threat to Nigeria’s national security and development because their increased operation has caused diversion and removal of government attention from some key areas of the economy, as massive amounts of human and material resources are channeled into combating the menace (Egodi, 2010).

Conflict is a major problem in any human society, and it is usually predictable. Indeed, history shows that conflict is a continuous process in human relations that can occur within and between groups and communities. In Nigeria, the frequent occurrence of Fulani herdsmen and farmer crises has had a negative impact on food security and socioeconomic development (Damba, 2007). Farmers have taken up weapons in response to attacks from Fulani herdsmen during these conflicts, claiming to be acting in self-defense. Kassam (2016) conducted a study that provided an overview of the general concept and causes of conflicts in Nigeria and advocates for ethical principles such as common humanity by origin, forgiveness, and tolerance that could engender cordiality and understanding rather than sustained hostility and suspicion in Fulani herdsmen. and

In Nigeria, farmers have a relationship.

The Fulani herdsmen and farmer crisis have undoubtedly had a negative impact on Nigerian lives, property, food security, and educational development. Despite the lack of quantitative evaluation of the catastrophic attacks, available statistics show that between June 2015 and December 2016, Human Rights Watch reported a total death toll of 65 people in more than 24 attacks in 2017. It was also reported that an estimated 50 people were killed in Nasarawa Egor (Nasarawa State) and Agatu/Logo (Benue State) in June 2016, and that lives were lost in Abraka on April 23rd, 2017 during a conflict between Fulani herdsmen and farmers. Apart from the loss of life, the Fulani herdsmen attack has resulted in the destruction of property.

Arable farmland and valuable properties worth billions of naira are available.

The aforementioned scenario has dire consequences for long-term and educational development in the attack regions in particular, and Nigeria in general. In the regions where the Fulani herdsmen and farmers crisis is pervasive, property destruction has the potential and reality of dragging their economic fortunes back several steps. Aside from the destruction of property, economic life in those areas is brought to a halt. For fear of being killed, people are no longer free to engage in farming, economic, or educational activities. This has been exacerbated by the rapid migration of thousands of people to other parts of Nigeria. The overall implication for sustainable development is that agriculture, economics, and education all play a role.

Activities are rapidly degrading. The murderous campaigns and vicious assaults on individuals and institutions create a highly unfavorable business environment for domestic and foreign investment, which is a critical factor in achieving sustainable development (Damba, 2007).

Another major issue caused by the conflict between Fulani, herdsmen, and farmers is that farming activities in some parts of Nigeria have been halted. Farmers in this region find it difficult to get to their farms and to get enough food crops to market, causing commodity prices to rise. The government has spent a large amount of money repairing buildings and infrastructure that have been destroyed by religious conflicts. Furthermore, substantial funds from the country’s

The budget has been used to compensate families who have lost loved ones due to the Fulani-herdsmen and farmers crisis. A large sum of money is also being spent on the acquisition of weapons and ammunition in order to equip the military to deal with the situation on the ground. All of these have had an impact on Nigeria’s economy.

Again, in Abraka, the recent Fulani-herdsmen and farmers clash on April 23, 2017 at the Abraka reserve caused serious damage to farmlands, claimed lives, and disrupted people’s socioeconomic activities, leading to an increase in the price of food items and commodities. Fear of Fulani herdsmen has caused problems because people can no longer go to farms or walk at night. This has hampered peaceful coexistence. of the Hausa people and the Abraka community. All of these have contributed to the problem identified in this study, which focuses on the effects of the Fulani herdsmen-farmers conflict on food security in the AbraQka region.


The purpose of this research is to look into the effects of the Fulani herdsmen-farmers conflict on food security in the Abraka region. The specific goals are as follows:

1. investigate the causes of the Fulani herdsmen and farmers crisis in the Abraka region

2. determine the level of awareness among Abraka people about food security issues in the area;

3. investigate the level of food availability and accessibility in the Abraka region as a result of the Fulani herdsmen and farmers crisis;

4. assess the impact of the Fulani herdsmen and farmer crisis on food security in the Abraka region

5. Discuss the options for dealing with the Fulani herdsmen and farmers crisis as it affects food security in Abraka.


This study tested the following research hypotheses:

1. The conflict between Fulani herders and farmers is not primarily caused by crop grazing, depletion of vegetation in the north, or harsh weather.

2. The conflict between Fulani herders and farmers has had no significant impact on food security in the Abraka region.

3. There is no discernible difference in the level of public awareness of food security issues in the Abraka region.


This study was created primarily to fulfill an academic requirement. Nonetheless, it is hoped that it will go a long way toward encouraging more substantive development efforts on issues related to the effects of the Fulani herdsmen-farmers crisis on food security in the Abraka region.

This study is not intended to break completely new ground; rather, it is undertaken with the intention of adding to the existing literature in the field of geography. Furthermore, this study is extremely important, particularly at this stage of Nigeria’s development, when there is a massive increase in the need to map and study an area’s infrastructural development.

This work is expected to guide geographers, educators, scientists, planners, engineers, architects, environmentalists, and others who work in the field. are affected in order to gain a better understanding of how the Fulani herdsmen-farmers crisis affects food security. However, the findings will also provide useful background information for future research on geography education’s contribution to nation building.


1.6.1  Location and Size

Abraka is located approximately 050 481 north of the equator and 06o 061 east of the Greenwich meridian. It is located on the eastern bank of the Ethiope River in Delta State’s Ethiope East Local Government Area, in the Niger Delta zone of southern Nigeria. It is bounded to the north by the Edo State Local Government Area of Orhionwon, to the east and south by the Ukwani Local Government Area and the Ughelli North Local Government Area, respectively, and to the west by the Ika Local Government Area. Abraka has a total land area of 21.2 square kilometers (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006).

Abraka’s boundary, size, and location favor cattle grazing and farm practices. At the same time. This has prompted Fulani herders to migrate from the north to Abraka for cattle grazing, resulting in serious clashes between herders and farmers in various Abraka clan quarters. This recent crisis has resulted in an increase in food items and food insecurity in Abraka.


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