EFFECT OF SOY GROUNDNUT MIXED GRAIN COMPLEMENTARY FOOD ON THE LEVEL OF SELECTED GROWTH IN MALE WEANING WISTAR RATS

 

Chapter one

Introduction

One of the most affordable and nourishing foods, soy is rich in nutraceuticals that can fight diseases brought on by malnutrition and lower the risk of developing serious chronic illnesses including cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and diabetes (Vineet, 2007). With the exception of amino acids containing sulfur, soy is a superior source of high-quality protein and compares favorably to animal protein in terms of the pattern of important amino acids. Vegetable proteins are rich in soy beans. It has 20% oil and around 40% protein.Lysine, a limiting amino acid in most grains, is abundantly present in proteins. Due to its high unsaturation, soy fat has been discovered to be nutritionally advantageous. As a result, it is a simple way for poor Indians to supplement their diet (Chauhan, 2005). It is regarded as a very healthy oil due to the large proportion of unsaturated fatty acids it contains, particularly linoleic and linolenic acids. The 82:18 ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids is very helpful in lowering blood cholesterol. Food made from soy has the majority of the desirable qualities, thus it can be used as a complete functional food.

Phytochemicals, isoflavones, and phytoestrogen, commonly known as coumesterol or “plant estrogen,” are physiologically active, non-nutritive molecules found in small amounts in soybeans. These substances have relatively mild estrogenic activities and have special health advantages.

Niacin, riboflavin, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are all present in soy, along with various water- and fat-soluble vitamin Bcomplexes (Tripathi, 2005). Frequently referred to as the “wonder crop,” soybeans. They are the largest producers of vegetable oil and protein in the world. The green, bushy soybean plant belongs to the same family of plants as peas, groundnuts (peanuts), and alfalfa.

Soybeans are categorized as an oilseed, which is a general term for plants with seeds that can economically produce both edible and/or non-edible oils. In comparison to other main world crops, soybeans are the most adaptable and can be produced in a larger range of soil types and climatic circumstances. Soybeans are the most frequently cultivated oilseed in the world as a result. In the past 20 years, scientists have discovered a far wider range of byproducts that can be extracted from soybeans and are proving useful in industrial applications, human diet, and animal feed.

The use of rats in medical studies is not new. They were the first domesticated mammalian species employed in scientific research. They are believed to have originated in various regions of Asia. By 1100 A.D., Rattusrattus had become well-established in Europe, and by the 1700s, Rattus norvegicus was widely distributed there. These animals were utilized for neuroanatomy research in Europe and the United States by the 1800s. Individual stocks and strains first emerged in the late 1800s and early 1900s (Animals in research, 2013; Sengupta, 2013).

The Wistar Institute in the United States of America, which created the Wistar albino strain of rats (Rattus norvegicus) in 1906, is credited with the success of the rat in research today (The Wistar Institute: History, 2007). There are currently 117 albino strains of laboratory rats, all of which can be genetically linked to one rat and are most likely the result of a mutation in a strain of hooded (piebald) rats (Animals in research, 2013).

statement of the problem

A legume high in vitamins, soy beans can also enhance hormonal function when combined with other grains as a supplementary diet. However, it can be a little challenging to ascertain the impact of it on the hormonal growth of rats when there may be insufficient tools available for the experiment to be conducted and, secondly, there may not be any qualified individuals in the lab to conduct it.Thirdly, it’s possible that there aren’t enough effective lab facilities to conduct all the required experiments. The influence of soya beans has been studied extensively, but no single study has examined the impact of soy groundnut mixed grain supplementary food on the level of selected food on the growth of hormones in male weaning wistar rats.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of soy groundnut mixed grain complementary food on the levels of selected growth hormones in male weaning wistars rat. Other specific objectives of the study include:

1.          to determine the effect of soy groundnut on the growth hormones in male weaning wistars rat.

2.          to determine the factors affecting the growth hormones of male weaning wistars rat.

3.          to determine the extent to which soy groundnut affects the growth hormones in male weaning wistars rats.

4.          to proffer possible solutions to the problems.

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1   What is the effect of soy groundnut on the growth hormones in male weaning wistars rat?

2       What are the factors affecting the growth hormones of male weaning wistars rat?

3       What is the extent to which soy groundnut affects the growth hormones in male weaning wistars rats?

4       What are the possible solutions to the problems?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1

H0:    Soy groundnut mixed grain complementary food has no significant effect on growth hormones in male wistars rats.

H1:        Soy groundnut mixed grain complementary food has a significant effect on growth hormones in male wistars rats.

Hypothesis 2

H0: There is no significant difference in growth hormones in male weaning wister rats.

H1: There is significant difference in growth hormones in male weaning wister rats

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the effect of soy groundnut mixed grain complementary food on the levels of selected growth hormones in male weaning wistars rats will be of immense benefit to the entire laboratories in the sense that it will enable laboratory scientist to examine the effect of complementary food on the growth hormones of wistars rat; due to the fact that most laboratory experiment is normally carried out on rat before carrying it out on human, it will therefore give them the result or the reaction they seek in rat before human; this will give them a clue of what will happen to human beings when they eventually take soy groundnut mixed grain complementary food. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the effect of soy groundnut mixed grain complementary food is limited to growth hormones in male weaning wistars rat.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

EffectA change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Soy GroundnutThe soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

Growth HormonesAlso known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

Wistars Rat This is a laboratory rat with its red eyes and white furs is an iconic model organism for research in a variety of fields.

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