EFFECTIVENESS OF DRAINAGE NETWORKS ON FLOODS

ABSTRACT

The study looked at how drainage networks affected floods in the Nigerian metropolis of Calabar. The city of Calabar’s rapid urbanization without corresponding infrastructures has increased the frequency of floods because the available drainage channels cannot handle the amount of storm water. Due to this, the study set up gauge stations to measure drainage runoff using steel measuring tape. Additionally, 400 households were given copies of the questionnaire in proportion to the seven sample units, and the flood water volume was measured using the stopwatch method (velocity of flow). It establishes the connection between drainage width and depth and floods in light of the study’s goals. Additionally, a number of descriptive statistics tools were utilized to provide accurate evaluation and comprehension of the relevant variables. It was determined from the gauging and physical measurement results that Calabar’s inadequate drainage systems are to blame for the city’s frequent heavy downpours. The findings showed that about 47% of respondents said floods happen in their area every year, and 41.75% said they happen for the majority of the year. Over 59% of the population who participated in the survey agreed that Calabar experiences frequent flooding, which is exacerbated by the severity of the flooding. The results further demonstrated that heavy rainfall (26.3%), insufficient drainage channels (22%) and poor physical planning (15.5%) are among the factors that contribute to floods occurring in the study area. On the The results showed that abuse of land use plans (28.7%) was a major factor, followed by poor monitoring and evaluation of the project (21.5%), in terms of perceived causes of an inadequate drainage channel. The study also showed that, as evidenced by the city’s frequent flooding, the drainage was extremely constrained and shallow. Constant flooding frequently results in water inundating buildings (64.5%), keeping people inside (11.25%), distorting the natural beauty of the surroundings (6.25%), and landslides (4.75%). Based on these conclusions, the study suggested that the government implement proactive measures to reduce storm water since Calabar is situated in a tropical region with heavy rainfall. People should regularly use shovels to clear the current drainage systems to allow for a continuous flow of rainwater. To fulfill their mandate and prevent constant flooding and property destruction in the city of Calabar, the state department of town planning must fully implement all urban ordinances.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Cities are the dominant factors in the distribution of the human population throughout the world.

Cities, which are the most populated areas on Earth, are still growing. This rise fuels the trend of urbanization that is expanding. Urbanization was defined by Duru and Nnaji (2008) as the rise in the proportion of people living in cities to people living in rural areas.

The result of social, economic, and political developments, urbanization involves the growth and concentration of large cities, modifications to the way land is used, and the transition from a rural to a metropolitan pattern of organization and governance. Rapid urbanization has long been a defining characteristic of the developing world (Aderamo, 2008).

Despite the fact that urbanization is a key factor in modernization, economic development, and development, there is growing concern about the effects of growing cities, particularly on the environment, human health, and way of life. Rapid urbanization and demographic trends have staggering effects on employment, food security, water supply, housing, and sanitation, especially when it comes to how to dispose of the solid and liquid waste that cities produce (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992). It is thought that the process of urbanization is related to levels of development, and some claim that in order for a country to develop, there needs to be a higher level of industrialization because it is generally agreed that urbanization cannot occur without rapid economic growth (Tettey, 2005). However, there is some worry that the pattern of urbanization in developing nations, particularly in Africa, may be causing a lot of development issues in the its growth process.

 

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