1.1        Background of the Study

Geographers have long observed regional imbalances in warning trends, which appeared to render the term “global warning” obsolete. While annual temperature averages continued to rise unquestionably through the late 1990s and early 2000s, overheated areas in the Northern Hemisphere were frequently matched by excessively cool regions in the Southern Hemisphere (Blij, Muller, Williams, Conrad and Long, 2005).

Natural resource discovery and extraction have had various consequences for countries endowed with such resources. While some of these nations have become economically strong and self-sufficient, others have been drawn into serious economic hardships and conflicts as a result of man’s atmospheric influence and activities. Man, through his various actions, intentionally or inadvertently influences weather and climate, which brings about serious economic hardships and conflicts.

Climate change is defined as an increase in average global temperatures.

Natural events and human activities are thought to be contributing to an increase in greenhouse gases like CO2 (CO2). Climate change in Nigeria is having a negative impact on the well-being of millions of people. Temperature, rainfall or precipitation, relative humidity, evaporation, solar radiation, and other climatic elements are commonly used to describe the climate of an environment or region. The description of these climate elements or parameters in any region is known as the region’s climatic characteristics. The most commonly used climatic description parameters are temperature, rainfall or precipitation, and relative humidity (Oguntoyinbo, 1983 and Ayoade, 1992).

Throughout the years,

Studies of climatic characteristics have been restricted to the micro scale, which is referred to as micro climatic characteristics (Efe, 2002; Oguntoyinbo, 1981; Ojo, 1988; Figurola, 1995; and Efe and Aruegodine, 2003). Human activities have a significant impact on the climate of Abraka, as most of these climatic parameters are altered by the region’s numerous human activities. Farming methods, gas flaring within the environment or neighboring communities, transportation, fumes from factory buildings, illegal oil bunkers, fumes from generator sets, improper waste disposal, deforestation, and so on are examples of these human activities.

The recent heat wave has been unbearable across the country. Even with the rain, the heat is unbearable. Have you ever thought about why the sun is so hot? The heat is the result of

by global warning. The rise in the atmosphere is referred to as global warning. This is referred to as the Green House Effect. A Green House Gas (abbreviated GHG) is a gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits thermal infrared radiation. The primary cause of the greenhouse effect is this process.

Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. Extreme weather conditions, heat caused by greenhouse gas depletion of the ozone layer, flooding, and water scarcity are all effects of global warming.

However, urbanization in Abraka has resulted in massive increases in problems such as obesity and township life, particularly in modern urban slums of the Despite the fact that the developing world is not immune to pestilence or climatic disruptions such as floods, it continues to be a magnet for migrants. As an area becomes more urbanized, it is necessary to study its climatic characteristics before they are completely militated by the modern trend of human population explosion, human and industrial activities, and to become familiar with its rural environmental conditions in relation to its rural surrounding centers. Against this backdrop, this study seeks to investigate the effects of global warming in Abraka.

1.2     Statement of Problem

The natural geographical setting and landscape of Abraka and its surroundings are rapidly being replaced by an agglomeration and clustering of both planned and unplanned building structures, with enormous consequences. The geometric increase in population, vehicular emissions from exhaust pipes, industrial discharges, and increased use of power generating sets due to erratic power supply by Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) all cause significant disruption in the natural ecosystem of the Abraka region, which in turn has a negative impact on the Abraka climate.

One of the effects of man’s activities that is causing an increase in temperature is due to changes in atmospheric composition, specifically the CO2, Ozone, and aerosols content of the atmosphere. There is one. There is unequivocal evidence that the CO2 content of the atmosphere has risen over time as a result of man’s use of fossil fuels for energy. For example, oil exploration has resulted in deforestation, and oil exploitation has resulted in gas flaring in the southern part of Nigeria, which has now exacerbated high temperatures and lower humidity. The coastal location and presence of the River Ethiope in Abraka contributed to humid conditions and heavy rainfall, but the influence of gas flaring (in neighboring communities such as Ebedei), fumes from generator sets, and other factors cast a shadow over this factor (Efe, 2002). Other human activities in Abraka and its surroundings have contributed to global warming. Some of these are Other activities include the use of generator sets, fumes from automobiles and factory buildings, indiscriminate waste/refuse dumping, and so on. Most of the farm products produced at Abraka P.O. are being harmed as a result of the negative impact of human activities, as most of the plants are being produced poorly as a result of too much high temperature in that part of Abraka. These substances (fumes from factory buildings, generator sets, motor vehicles, tricycles, and motorcycles) have also contributed to air pollution and increased the temperature of the region, resulting in Global Warming. This is due to an increase in the number of building structures and warm air conditioners, which add warmth to the surroundings, pollute the environment, and radiate heat into it.

The natural environment was also altered by the surrounding landscape and the transformation of the landscape into a townscape. According to Efe (2002a and 2006), this alternation increased the temperature of the urban canopy.

Similarly, in recent years, research efforts have primarily focused on education, economic activities, religion, political system, sporting activities, administrative divisions, and other non-geographic aspects of the Abraka region. As a result of extensive research, it was discovered that there has not been much emphasis placed on the effects of global warming in the Abraka region, nor has there been much interest shown in the idea.

Recently, there has been a call for a periodic re-examination of tropical city urban climates in order to update and compare the situation in these cities.

in comparison to other cities around the world (Lowry, 1998; Efe, 2004 and Adelekan, 2005). Based on these requests, as well as the numerous problems and neglects associated with Abraka as an urban center, the need for this study to determine how global warming has affected the Abraka community in Delta State arises.

This study aims to demonstrate the true effects of global warming in Nigeria by using the Abraka region as a case study, including how urbanization and civilization have affected the climate of Abraka and its surroundings.

1.3     Aim and Objectives

The study’s goal is to assess the effects of global warming in Abraka, with specific goals including:

1. Recognize the various climatic features of Abraka.

2. Discuss the temperature trend over time.

3. Investigate the effects of anthropogenic/human activities on the Abraka region’s climate.

4. Investigate the effects of global warming on Abraka residents.

5. Make recommendations for resolving problems associated with the effects of global warming in the Abraka region, as well as how to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization on both human activities and climate.

1.4     Hypothesis

1. Abraka has not warmed significantly over the years.

2. Human activities have no discernible impact on the climate of the Abraka region.

3. The residents of Abraka are unaffected by global warning.

1.5     Significance of the Study

The study’s significance lies in the effects of human activities on global warming within Abraka. The consequences and significance of human activities on climate cannot be overstated. The study’s goal is to inform the people of Abraka about the extent to which human activities have contributed to global warming.

As a result, efforts must be made to control human activities in order to avoid negatively affecting the climate of Abraka, as if the climate of the study area continues to be affected by an excess of human activities. There could be an excess of rainfall, resulting in flooding, or there could be an increase in the temperature. The temperature of the area will affect not only agricultural activities but also other activities on which humans rely for survival. It is hoped that the findings of this study will go a long way toward reducing global warming caused by human activities, which has resulted in ozone layer depletion, which has had a significant impact on the climate of the Abraka region. The findings will also provide useful background information for future research on geography’s contribution to nations.

1.6     STUDY AREA

1.6.1  Location and Size

Abraka is located in Nigeria’s South-South zone. It can be found at latitudes 050 471 and 050 501 north of the equator, and longitudes 060001 and 060 081 east of the Greenwich Meridian. It is located on the eastern bank of the Ethiope River in Delta State, Nigeria, in the Ethiope East Local Government Area.

Abraka has a land area of 21.2 square kilometers (Ufuoma, 2000). It is bounded in the north by Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State, in the south by Ughelli Local Government Area of Delta State, in the east by Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State, and in the west by Okpe Local Government Area of Delta State.


The region is situated in the Benin lowlands (Udo, 1987). Abraka has a humid tropical climate with extremely high temperatures between November and April. It could reach temperatures ranging from 250°C to 310°C.

Rainfall occurs all year due to its location in the Niger Delta, with monsoon winds blowing continuously from the Atlantic Ocean. The wet and dry seasons are distinct, with annual rainfall ranging from 2000mm to 3000mm.

Table 1.1 Abraka Mean Monthly Rainfall Distribution (mm) (1976-2005)

J A S O N D J F M A M Total 27 32 122.1 241.5 296.2 442.6 615.5 450.4 628.9 180.8 54.9 25.8 3097.8

Archive: Department of Geography Weather Station: 1976-2005 (Efe, 2006)

Table 1.2 Mean Monthly Temperature Distribution (0 degrees Celsius) in

Abraka (1976-2005) (1976-2005)

J F M A M J The letter J A S O N D Mean 30.3 30.5 30.4 30.5 30.7 30.1 30.1 30.1 30 30.5 30.7 30.7 30.6

Archive: Department of Geography Weather Station: 1976-2005 (Efe, 2006)

Abraka has grown rapidly in size over the years due to the presence of various administrative offices and governmental functions, and it now serves both administrative and governmental functions. This is also due to the institution’s presence in the area. This draws people from the surrounding area because of its employment opportunities and academic activities, resulting in overcrowding, increased temperature, urban warming, and other factors that contribute to global warming.

1.6.2  Population of the Study Area

Abraka’s population has grown since 2005, when it was designated as an urban center by the Asaba-Delta State Ministry of Lands, Survey, and Urban Development (MLSUD). Nigeria’s overall population has been growing in recent years (Mabogunje, 1980). He cited two reasons: natural urban population growth and migration from other parts of the world. This can be attributed to the Abraka region, which is one of Nigeria’s fastest urbanizing towns due to the presence of tertiary institutions. The presence of tertiary institutions with various programs and other economic activities has been one of the major pull factors attracting people to Abraka, resulting in population explosion.

Abraka’s rapid economic and socioeconomic development has been enormously aided. Apart from population growth, the town has grown from a small town to an urban center that has engulfed the rural surroundings of Abraka.

The implication of these increases in size and population is that they have resulted in a population explosion in Abraka’s urban areas, which has resulted in the alteration of the natural environment and its climate due to anthropogenic activities carried out in the area. This, in turn, has had a negative impact on the residents of Abraka and its surroundings as a result of global warming.

1.6.3  Climate

Abraka is located in the tropical environment, which has the tropical rainforest climate (AF) of Koppen in 1918 and the wet equatorial climate (STRAHLLER) in 1969. The tropical maritime air mass and the tropical continental air mass both have an impact on the climate. Abraka is a humid tropical climate region with high temperatures between November and April and temperature variations between 250c and 290c between April and October. The Abraka region has an annual temperature of around 30.60 degrees Celsius, with a monthly mean temperature of 300 degrees Celsius in September and 31.10 degrees Celsius in June and July, and an annual temperature range of 30 degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius. Repeated studies have revealed that the average climatic rainfall in Abraka is approximately 2500mm per year.

Abraka is divided into two seasons: dry (Harmattan) and wet (rainy). However, due to its location in the Niger Delta zone with the constant monsoon wind blowing from the Atlantic Ocean and also a continuous from shift in the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) due to the movement of air masses, Abraka experiences rainfall all year.

The implication is that the inhabitants of Abraka have been affected by global warming due to the rapid rise in temperature over the years.

1.6.4  Vegetation

Abraka is located in the equatorial rainforest, which is an evergreen forest with three canopies of trees: the upper layer is about 60m tall, the middle layer is about 40m tall, and the lower layer is about 30m tall. The three major vegetation types in Abraka are tropical rainforest belt, temperate grasslands, and grassland vegetation, which remains one of the most important factors influencing the climate of the Abraka Region. Abraka region’s vegetation provides lumbering and medicinal purposes. The abundant rainfall in Abraka facilitates the cultivation of crops such as cassava and maize in the region. Because of agricultural practices and growing, man has primarily reduced the forest to secondary growth (deciduous vegetation).

of various cash and food crops. This has exposed the environment to direct sunlight, resulting in intense heating of the environment and global warning due to a lack of trees to act as shade and wind break.

The implication of these is that human activities have reduced Abraka’s vegetation to secondary re-growth, exposing the environment to hazards such as intense temperature rise, flooding, erosion, and so on, which have affected Abraka’s inhabitants through global warming effects.

1.6.5  Geology and Soils

Abraka is mostly composed of underlying sedimentary rock. Abraka is located in the most southern sedimentary rock. Abraka is located in Nigeria’s southernmost sedimentary basis.

The soil in Abraka is acidic. Abraka soil ranges from coarse to medium to fine grained. Abraka’s soils are classified as sandy loam. The soil is greenish brown to reddish brown to brown in color. The entire sandy portion of the soil has a light grayish coloration, whereas the presence of ion oxide in the soil has a reddish brown coloration. This hue represents the availability of mineral matter and moisture. Abraka soil is poorly structured in terms of grain size and pore spaces, which greatly influences the rate of percolation.

and capillarity, aeration, and evaporation rate.

The implication of these is that human activities have exposed the soil to erosional activities and flooding, making the soil infertile for agricultural acuities, etc., affecting the inhabitants of the Abraka region who rely on farming for a living.

1.6.6  Relief and Drainage System

Abraka and its surroundings are drained by two major rivers, the Ethiope and Ovwuvwe.

The majority of Abraka’s communities are located in the uplands between these rivers. The River Ethiope has a dentritic drainage pattern. These rivers serve as recreational and tourist centers, major sources of water for the population, sand stone mining sites, religious activities, and agricultural activities, to name a few.

Abraka and its environs are located in Nigeria’s low land area, 50 meters above sea level. It is also only about 45 kilometers from Nigeria’s coast. Abraka has a low relief of gentle hilly flat surface with an anticline nature, i.e. an elevation of less than or equal to 60, which in the case of Abraka is less than or equal to 60.

The interior coastal landmass of western Nigeria can also be linked ion classification with the north shell.

The porous nature of the Abraka soil, combined with the undulating landform, absorbs much heat, which radiates to the atmosphere, altering the climate of the area and potentially contributing to global warming.

1.6.7  Socio-economic Activities

The government of Ethiopia East and Delta State in general has recently begun to restore existing socioeconomic infrastructure such as roads, portable water, rural electrification, educational facilities, health facilities, stadiums, and other socio amenities. The government has revolutionalized changes and improvements in areas like education, health, agriculture, cooperative movement, commerce and market development, industrialization, youth and sports development, and so on. As part of voluntary agencies, town unions, private individuals, and associations have played active roles in the development of educational infrastructure, tourism, and recreational facilities in the region.

In terms of transportation, Abraka’s tricycle mode of transportation has aided not only in the movement of people and information, but also in the provision of employment and income.

and raises the living standards of both motorcyclists, tricyclists, and commercial transports.

In terms of commerce, the Abraka region involves the sale of a variety of locally produced food crops such as yam, plantain, banana, and so on, as well as non-food products. The poorly planned physical structure of the Abraka market (Centre of Commerce) and other neighboring stores has seriously impacted the rate of commerce in terms of drainage and indiscriminate waste disposal at market site, which has a knock-on effect on the health standard of food crops for consumption sold in the market. This mismanaged waste generates heat, making the environment inhabitable and causing climate change, resulting in global warming.

Abraka is distinguished by its settlement.

with both primary and secondary settlement. Residential buildings, hospitals, health care centers, and schools are examples of primary settlements, while hostels, filling stations, and factories are examples of secondary settlements. There is no doubt today that settlement pattern and characteristics have played a significant role in the socioeconomic development of the Abraka region and have boasted the region’s socioeconomic activities over the years.

The people of the Abraka region engage in both subsistence and commercial agriculture, producing both food and cash crops. As their primary agricultural practices, they engage in mixed cropping and crop rotation farming. Agriculture has provided food, employment, and other sources of income to the people of the Abraka region over the years.

In general, the enormous emotion of poisonous gases and substances from motor vehicles The release of vehicles, engines, tricycles, and other pollutants into the atmosphere has polluted the environment and altered the climate of the area, resulting in global warming.

1.7     Scope/Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this research is limited to the impact of urbanization on climate, with a focus on the effects of global warming in Nigeria, using Abraka as a case study. The project is also limited to a few areas of study: Abraka P.O (Urban area of study), Ekrerejeta, Abraka Inland (rural area of study), Ajalomi, Erho, Oria, Urhuovie, Ugono, and a rural control area (such as Umeghe and Urhagbesa).

However, this research was hampered by a number of factors, including financial, time, and physical constraints. However, despite these constraints, the researcher was able to produce reliable results.

1.8     Definition of Terms

Global warming is defined as an increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere caused by an increase in specific gases, most notably carbon dioxide.

The problem of the gradual rise in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere caused by an increase in gases such as carbon dioxide in the air surrounding the earth, which trap the heat of the sun.

Climate:- The synthesis of weather over 30 years at a specific time in a specific location.

Weather:- The state of the atmosphere at a specific point in time within a specific location.

Climate Change:- The alteration or variation of climate from its original state after a long period of study.

Environment:- The space environment that surrounds man.

Town:- A large settlement that typically houses thousands of facilities.

Urban Area:- The characteristics of a city.

Rural Area:- An area commonly referred to as a village infrastructure- the foundation of a system to develop a place heads together.

Community: A group of people who live in the same area.

Temperature:- The degree to which a human body is hot or cold.

Relief: The nature and terrain of a region.

Development means to gradually increase or grow.

Growth is defined as an increase in the size, amount, or degree of something.

Gas: Any substance that is neither a solid nor a liquid, such as air.

Effect:- A change caused by something or someone in something or someone else. It could be positive or negative.

· Acid Rain:- Rain that contains harmful chemicals from factory gasses and that damages trees, crops, aquatic life and buildings.

Pollutant: They are a type of pollutant. Unwanted byproducts of production and consumption that are released into the environment and cause harm.


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