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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In Nigeria as in most of the developing world, citizens are often confronted with myriad threats and challenges on their well-being and survival. These include poverty, high rates of unemployment, violence, brutality, deprivation of resources, lack of opportunity, marginalization and the denial and suppression of basic rights and freedom. While military dictatorships have been replaced by democratic institutions in the past, marginalized voices have remained suppressed; a viable outlet for these voices to express their grievances is frequently absent or ineffectual. Those who needed it the most have not reaped the benefits of democracy’s so-called rewards. In these circumstances, a demonstration has become an unavoidable option for people to express their ideas, concerns, and strong demands for change in their fate (Shigetomi, 2005).

Since 1960, when Nigeria gained independence from its former colonial masters, the United Kingdom, it has seen a wave of protests, primarily in the form of general strikes, boycotts, and mass demonstrations organized and led by labor unions, youth movements, and social activists to press home a variety of demands and grievances. Demands for higher pay, better living conditions, an end to widespread poverty, insecurity, bad governance, brutality, corruption, and freedom from repressive military rule are among the topics that have dominated these events.

Corruption is a symptom of a wide range of problems in today’s societies. It frequently involves multiple parties. It appears to be a sort of organized crime. Nigeria was ranked 144th out of 146 countries in Transparency International’s perception index, defeating Bangladesh.

Men from the Special Anti-Robbery Squad SARS allegedly gunned down a Nigerian youth, snatched his car, and fled with it, according to a viral message shared on social media. As word of the video spread on social media, the hashtag #ENDSARS gained traction, with more young people demanding an end to the brutal police unit that has brutalized young Nigerians for years. The bottom line of this movement, however, is to put an end to uniformed men’s cruelty towards unarmed citizens, which is a sign of corruption.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nigeria’s dismal socioeconomic performance, human rights violations, widespread poverty, insecurity, corruption, and lack of trust in the political system have engendered discontent among the electorate, particularly among the youth, who account for 51 percent of the population. This is significant in a rapidly rising population of nearly 200 million people, with more than 60% of the population under the age of 25. (NPC 2006). The poor level of basic infrastructure, weak healthcare and educational systems, excessive unemployment, and the number of out-of-school children are all examples of the human cost of terrible governance. There is a widespread belief that the consequences of weak administration will eventually catch up with everyone, regardless of socioeconomic status. However, the recent EndSARS rallies by young Nigerians against police brutality served as a wake-up call. The protests revealed the youth’s dissatisfaction with administration across the country, rather than just with the police. Nigerians are increasingly asking that the government adopt good governance to address the core causes of poverty, insecurity, human rights violations, and socio-economic instability. #EndSARS brought together young Nigerians of all religions and ethnic backgrounds. Despite their disagreements, the majority of protestors were unified against police violence, which helped the movement gain traction across the country. This study aims to reveal the implication of the ENDSARS protest: a call for the eradication of corruption in Nigeria, against a backdrop of unrelenting police violence and human rights violations.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The overall goal of this research is to look at the ENDSARS protest as a call to end corruption in Nigeria.

The purpose of this study is to determine what caused the ENDSARS protest in Nigeria.

To investigate the methods used to carry out the ENDSARS protest.

To see how far the ENDSARS protest asked for Nigeria’s corruption to be eradicated.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. What are the fundamental causes of the Nigerian ENDSARS protest?

2. What techniques did the ENDSARS protesters use to convey their dissatisfaction?

3. To what extent has the ENDSARS protest heightened the need for Nigeria to be free of corruption?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of interest to the general public, but it will be particularly significant in the following ways:

It will bring to light the youth’s dissatisfaction with authorities who are supposed to be protecting them but are instead abusing their human rights.

It would make the government aware of the necessity to investigate the security agencies’ wrongdoing and actions in Nigeria.

It will raise policymakers’ attention to the urgent need for law enforcement agencies to undergo realistic changes and clarify their authority in order to ensure that they do not violate human rights while performing their jobs.

It will be used as a benchmark for future research on this or comparable topics by researchers and students.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The goal of this study is to look at the impact of the ENDSARS protest, which calls for the abolition of corruption in Nigeria. The study will focus on the activities of ENDSARS in Nigeria, with Delta and Edo states as case studies.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following are the study’s significant limitations:

Financial constraints– A lack of funds impedes the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data gathering procedure (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will be working on this study while also doing other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Corruption is a sort of dishonesty or a criminal offense committed by a person or organization in a position of authority in order to obtain illegal benefits or to misuse power for personal gain.

Eradication: Eradication is the process of entirely eliminating or eradicating anything harmful.

ENDSARS:End SARS is a decentralized social movement in Nigeria that consists of a series of public rallies against police brutality. The phrase demands that the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), a notorious Nigerian police force with a lengthy history of abuses, be disbanded.

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