1.1  Background of the Study

The phrase “social media” is frequently used to describe emerging types of media that encourage interactive engagement. The broadcast age and the interactive age are two eras that have often been used to categorize the growth of media. During the broadcast era, media distribution was nearly entirely centralized, with many people receiving information from a single organization like a radio station, television station, newspaper publisher, or film studio. Feedback to media outlets was frequently impersonal, indirect, and delayed. Mediation was used to facilitate contact between people on a much smaller scale, mainly through personal letters, phone calls, or occasionally on a somewhat larger scale using tools like photocopied family newsletters. A new media period when interactivity was put at the heart of new media functions was born as a result of the advent of digital and mobile technology, which made large-scale engagement easier for people than ever before. A single person could now address a large audience and receive immediate feedback. Citizens and customers could now convey their ideas to a large audience when they previously had a small and somewhat muted voice. Also, there are now more possibilities for media consumption than ever before thanks to new technology’s low cost and accessibility. Instead of only having access to a few news sites, people can now find information from a variety of sources and engage in discussion about it on message boards.

Social media is at the center of this continuing change. Here, the characteristics, typical configurations, and typical uses of social media are examined.

Principal Qualities

All social media, whether mobile or fixed, use some sort of digital platform. But not every aspect of the digital world is social media. Social media is defined by two common traits. First, engagement in social media is possible in various ways. Even though social networking sites like Facebook occasionally permit passive observation of what others publish, social media are never totally passive. Often, a profile that allows for the beginning of the potential for interaction must be constructed as a bare minimum. Social media differs from traditional media, where personal accounts are uncommon, because of that feature alone. Second, social media also include interaction due to their participatory character. This interaction may be with long-standing friends, relatives, or acquaintances as well as with brand-new acquaintances who have mutual interests or even a common acquaintance circle. While many social media platforms were or are still viewed as unique at first, as they are increasingly incorporated into personal and professional lives, they are becoming less noticeable and more anticipated.

Typical Forms

This summary of popular social media platforms shows that while some are used primarily for leisure or personal relationships and others for work or professional purposes, most give room for both.


training. Open records laws permit interested parties or organizations to request any emails sent or received to a government funded email account or an email account used to conduct government business. These laws frequently apply to people who work for public organizations, including politicians, professors at state universities, administrators, and assistants for government offices. p. 1159 Email was first used before the internet because some businesses could send communications electronically over a local computer network.

Sending messages across several servers became possible as the Internet gained popularity. Email serves as

A quick and extrem

Sending messages across several servers became possible as the Internet gained popularity. Email serves as a quick and extremely dependable means to communicate files or photographs, updates or crucial information at a moment’s notice, or to distribute a single piece of information to many people. Spam, or unsolicited email that typically comes from commercial sources, is a problem that many people encounter. Computer viruses that use email programs to collect all of the email addresses in a user’s contact book frequently make spam worse.

 A single piece of information to many people. Spam, or unsolicited email that typically comes from commercial sources, is a problem that mainly dependable means to communicate files or photographs, updates or crucial information at a moment’s notice, or to distribute people encounter. Computer viruses that use email programs to collect all of the email addresses in a user’s contact book frequently make spam worse. An address book is the list of email addresses that an individual saves to quickly send an email to an individual or a group of people. People often divide an address book into different kinds of friends, colleagues, or family members to send correspondence to those who it is most relevant.


A texter is a two-way communication tool, similar to email, that enables people to send messages to one or more people quickly. Although media

portrayals often make it look as if texting is a particularly youthful behavior, people of all ages have adapted to texting. Still, younger individuals tend to text more often and usually do so at a faster speed. As texting technology has improved, it is easier to text photos or to copy and paste links into texters in order to share them with others. Texters often make use of emoticons, the use of keyboard characters to make pictures such as a smiley face (e.g., :-P), a practice that is also common with email. Texters are derived from chatters, or computer programs that make use of the internet to allow people to quickly talk back and forth via text characters. Although the use of texting is often highly convenient and allows many benefits, particular attention has been paid to two texting behaviors that has led to problems: texting while driving and sexting.

According to estimates, texting while driving increases the likelihood of a collision by about 23%. Sexting is mainly destructive when young people exchange pictures that the recipient then circulates to other people. It has occasionally been alleged that sending images of people under the age of 18 constitutes child pornography. Politicians who sent sexually explicit messages to others, including interns, have come under fire. Despite these problematic potentials, many adults report that sexting is a satisfying alternative to sexual interaction when they are away from their partners.


Weblog is the ancestor of the word blog. A website that features a blog is

Using the internet, an individual or group can communicate information or ideas to a broad audience. Starting a blog and then not posting to it again is not uncommon. Some of the most popular blogs are updated frequently so their readers know when to look for fresh posts. Blogs discuss a wide range of subjects, including many political issues. A typical component of blogs is a discussion board where readers can engage with both the blog author and other commenters after reading an entry. Online features like blogs have been implemented by several traditional media entities Many traditional media outlets have adopted blog-like features online in order to entice readers to continue sticking with their news or entertainment offerings.

For instance, readers frequently get the chance to remark or share their thoughts about a recent event at the conclusion of newspaper articles. Some news items, particularly those that deal with contentious or polarizing political subjects, often spark heated discussions. It is usual for a user to be asked to register in order to engage due to the contentious nature many blogs and news sites find. p. 1160

Discussion forums.

Fans of television shows and other popular entertainment frequently visit message boards where users can post messages that discuss a specific topic.

Message boards are also well-liked by those looking for advice or social support, whether they be injured soldiers trying to understand life after war or a woman with breast cancer who wants to speak to someone who has been there. Via review websites like Yelp that let customers rate establishments like restaurants, advice is also provided. places of connections. Another kind of social media is online dating. People visit online dating services, some of which provide free membership while others require payment, and set up an account. A profile outlining who they are and what they are looking for in a partner. Although some may question the veracity of the information provided in an online profile, research demonstrates that people are generally honest.

As more people utilize online dating services to find romantic companions, the stigma associated with them has continued to fade. Others may use connection sites for purposes other than dating, such as locating friends or activity partners. For instance, users can find political groups, reading clubs, or hobby groups on the social networking site Meet Up. Users can create a profile and even send messages to group leaders to meet up and learn more about the activity or determine whether they would fit in well with the group.

Social media platforms.

Social networking websites like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, and others are practically omnipresent in modern culture. Even those who decide not to sign up for an account and participate online will frequently learn about information obtained from such social platforms from other people. The user list that one connects with on a social networking site is a crucial differentiator, typically based on friendship, family, work, or even weak tie relationships.

Although it is still possible, many social networking sites now restrict users from adding connections they do not know. Initially, social networking sites were fantastic places to meet new people. The public nature of material shared on social networking sites frequently provides a platform for the expression of social or political ideas, although research indicates

A large portion of this political activity serves to confirm pre-existing convictions, especially given that people frequently make online connections with people who share their views.

Social media serve a variety of purposes, as seen by the numerous categories.

They first enable identity work for individuals. The act of putting one’s identity into a profile necessitates some form of introspection. People start to view themselves differently as they observe responses to their online social presence, and they start to realize that, for better or worse, online engagement makes them feel more comfortable sharing their thoughts, ideas, and enquiries. Second, social media gives users the opportunity to take care of their relationships in many ways. Despite the fact that social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are sometimes vilified in popular discourse as being shallow and egotistical

They enable interaction amongst people who might not otherwise be able to connect to an outlet. Individuals claim to have met some of their closest friends and even their marriages using online communication tools. Finally, social media enables users to carry out professional tasks. Sometimes the social media is their job, like in the case of a well-known blog or a person paid to advertise events who has a sizable social network. Sometimes people converse with coworkers. They handle the majority of their business contact via social media platforms or, particularly, email. Fourth, social media enables users to exchange ideas or seek for information.

This information can cover a variety of topics, including local problems, political campaigns, disaster relief, and where to find plus size items. Finally, and frequently related to information sharing, social media allows users to express their ideas or take into account those of others. And last, people can discover entertainment on these websites.

Technological innovations and quick progress have transformed communication and information transmission. The storage and transmission of information have undergone significant change as a result of technological advancement. According to Chapman and Slaymaker (2002), the industrial society has advanced into an era of advanced technical advancements, which has an impact on how individuals live their lives and how businesses do their regular commercial operations. More than ever before, technology is influencing people’s daily lives. It is employed in every aspect of life, including banking, energy, industry, transportation, healthcare, education, agriculture, and the search and retrieval of information (Boutin, 2013). The increasing adoption of internet and mobile technologies is at the heart of all technical advancements (Dickey, 2013; Reference.com, 2017; Okiy, 2010). ICTs have become so ingrained in our daily lives that the idea of the “internet of things” is now a notion (IoT). A network of connected devices, items, or things is referred to as the “internet of things” when they can communicate and share data utilizing embedded sensors and the internet (Meola, 2016; Morgan, 2014). A person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile with built-in sensors to warn the driver when tire pressure is low, or any other natural or artificial object that can be given an IP address and given the ability to transfer data over a network are all examples of things that can be included in the Internet of Things, according to Rouse (2016, para. 2). This is how fast technology is changing our daily activities, the way we interact with one another and our interaction with nature. In today’s world, information societies are no longer separated. As stated by Nwagwu (2006), Okiy (2010) and West & Heath (2011); mobile phones, fax machines, the internet and other ICT facilities has accelerated the concept of globalization. With the use of technology individuals, organizations and government agencies are able to share ideas and work on projects from across continents. It is unfortunate that developing countries are at an ever increasing disadvantage in a globalizing world, as they fail to harness the benefits of the ongoing technological developments (Chapman & Slaymaker, 2002; Rodríguez & Wilson, n.d.). Nwagwu (2006; 179) also concurs that “the impact of ICTs in developing countries generally can be considered inegalitarian because their benefits accrue more to the rich than the poor developing countries, thus defining a new form of digital divide”. Therefore it is of paramount importance that developing countries know how to bridge the digital divide and be able to use ICTs to benefit all levels of society (Greenberg, 2006).Though the rate of technological development and adoption in developing countries cannot be compared to the rate of technological developments in developed countries; literature shows that developing countries are also facing an information explosion and relatively high numbers of information seekers who are using technology on an everyday basis. ICTs have altered African nations including Cameroon, Chad, and Mali since the 1980s, according to Bruijn (2009). Additional studies (Bhuasiri, Xaymoungkhoun, Zo, Rho, & Ciganek (2012); Kozma & Vota (2014)) show that developing nations have established ICT policies, egovernment initiatives, and are investing significantly in a variety of technical advancements. ICTs may be able to assist developing nations in addressing a variety of difficulties, including social, economic, and health-related issues. This is feasible if the public and the government both have immediate access to information that can affect decision-making. Using information communication technology that will allow them to distribute information efficiently and quickly is crucial for information providers. According to Andrianaivo and Kpodar (2011) and Delponte et al. (2015), efficient and effective information distribution by information repositories and access by information users may aid developing nations in their efforts to eradicate extreme poverty and combat catastrophic diseases.

Technology’s inception and ongoing ICT advancements have changed how information is acquired, stored, organized, maintained, and how services are provided (Fagbola, Uzoigwe, & Ajegbomogun, 2011). The means used to spread information in the twenty-first century include the ones listed below. The majority of these strategies use technology, including laptops, smartphones, PDAs, MP3 players, PCs, and a variety of other devices. Networked databases and online public access catalogs: Because catalogs are available online, users can retrieve and access information resources more quickly. Access to the current OPACs is possible via mobile devices such cell phones.

1.2  Statement of Research Problem

The suspension of Twitter’s operations in Nigeria by the Nigerian federal government may have put both of them in a difficult situation because they have lost the millions of followers they had accumulated over the course of more than five years. Twitter has lost billions of dollars as a result of the scandal, and Nigerians no longer have access to instant messaging in both the public and private sectors. Alhaji Lai Mohammed, the minister of information and culture, had previously announced the suspension of Twitter after the business had removed portions of President Muhammadu Buhari’s post that were considered to be in violation of its regulations. Following scathing criticism of the suspension from social activists who claimed it violated Nigerians’ right to free expression as guaranteed by Section 39 (1) of the amended Constitution, Muhammed added a second justification for the action, claiming the temporary ban on the internet platform was a response to the company’s persistent violation of the nation’s national security interests. The suspension order had attracted a directive from the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC), asking all Telcos and broadcasting media to deactivate their Twitter handles and block access to the internet facility. Many Nigerians, have, however, circumvented the federal government’s blockage of the micro-blogging facility, resorting to the virtual private network (VPN) to connect Twitter. Although THISDAY’s checks showed that Buhari, his deputy, Prof. Yemi Osinbajo (SAN), and many government agencies, including the armed forces, ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs), have suspended tweeting, some governors including Malam Nasir el-Rufai (Kaduna), Mr. Rotimi Akeredolu (Ondo) and Mr. Seyi Makinde (Oyo) have continued to tweet in defiance of the federal government’s directive. Analysts said on Monday that both the federal government and Twitter must be feeling the rough edges of the suspension as they suffer its adverse effect. For the Nigerian government, its agencies and millions of private sector users of the micro-blogging facility, it amounts to a loss of an instant communication tool, which had helped to facilitate the dissemination and receipt of information necessary for the conduct of their businesses. Agencies like Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) that had used its Twitter handle to instantly communicate with the public information on the COVID-19 pandemic, would now have to revert to other pre-Twitter messaging platforms, including e-mail, Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram that are not as fast, . A day after Mohammed announced the suspension of Twitter’s operations in Nigeria, the Attorney-General of the Federation (AGF) and Minister of Justice, Mr. Abubakar Malami, had warned that violators of the ban would be prosecuted. But senior lawyers have questioned the legality of Malami’s order, saying that it is not grounded in law, adding that Nigerians could not be prosecuted for offences not specified by law. To calm the global outrage that the suspension of Twitter has generated, the federal government on Monday met with ambassadors of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, the European Union and Ireland in Nigeria and sought their understanding on its suspension of Twitter’s operations in Nigeria. But save for the First Lady, Hajia Aisha Buhari, who deactivated her Twitter handle following the suspension of Twitter’s operations in the country, Buhari, Osinbajo and some other top government officials still retained their accounts, although they’re inactive. However, the federal government’s directive suspending Twitter’s operations in Nigeria was silent on whether or not Nigerians should deactivate their accounts. But a directive Monday by the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) had directed road and television stations in the country to de-install their Twitter accounts. Yet, investigations reveal that government Ministries, Departments, and Agencies’ (MDAs) Twitter accounts are also being kept. Some of the accounts being kept belong to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chief Geoffrey Onyema, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), and others (MFA). Among many others, there are the Nigerian Police, the Nigerian Center for Disease Control (NCDC), the Super Eagles, the country’s national football team’s official Twitter account, and the Nigerian Football Federation (NFF). While the majority of these accounts are dormant, this cannot be said of their assistants who have used their Virtual Private Network to tweet outside of the networks (VPN). Former senators Shehu Sani and Dino Melaye have active Twitter accounts, and el-Rufai posted a link to an article titled “Nigeria: African country provides US lesson in how to tackle Big Tech dictatorship RT Op-ed.” While Makinde tweeted to call for calm on the attack on the Igangan community in Oyo State at 9.45 am on Sunday, Akeredolu sent his final tweet regarding the attack on the Igangan community at 7.11 pm on Sunday. Also, most churches are still active on Twitter with both Deeper Life Bible Church and Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG), justifying their accounts being active on the grounds that they need to reach congregants in other countries. The RCCG, in a clarification, said: “The Redeemed Christian Church of God is domiciled in more than 170 nations & territories. The tweets here are in accordance with Article 19 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” Article 19 of the UDHR said: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.” Also, the Deeper Life General Overseer, Pastor Williams Kumuyi said: “In view of the Twitter ban in Nigeria, please note that the content shared on this handle is targeted at a global audience in more than five continents and over 100 nations and we share the content from any of these locations.”The federal government on Monday sought the understanding of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, the European Union and Ireland over its suspension of Twitter’s operations in Nigeria. It, however, gave conditions to lift the suspension. Also on Monday, Lagos State Governor, Mr. Babajide Sanwo-Olu, called for a speedy resolution of the dispute. Addressing a press conference after a meeting with the five representatives of the missions in Abuja, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Onyeama, said they had a discussion concerning the issues of Twitter ban and based on the joint press statement earlier made by the missions. He said: “We had a useful discussion with the countries that are considered to be close friends and partners of Nigeria. We sat down and discussed the entire scenario, including the security concerns of Mr. President and all Nigerians as well as the very decisive actions we’ve done to address the nation’s security difficulties. Onyeama claimed that they provided first-hand information regarding the nation’s security issues as well as the function of social media. He claimed that while social media is useful for spreading knowledge, there are also good and harmful uses for it. The negative aspects, he continued, have terrible effects on both human life and property. According to him, maintaining national unity is important, and in order to do all of this, a decision must be made and steps must be done to ensure that social media platforms are used appropriately. He added that as a democracy, it was expected that fundamental human rights, including the right to free expression, would be upheld. He added that this should not be allowed to destabilize the nation. He claimed that despite its security and development issues, Nigeria had received support from the five missions and their respective nations. We have been working in partnership and unity with the five nations, he said. They have supported us very strongly in our security challenges, humanitarian crisis, development challenges and economic challenges, so we can say that these countries are our partners. We are asking them to also support us as we continue to confront all these challenges. “We have listened to them and they also have their views on all of these issues and we gave them the opportunities to also expressed themselves. “We are particularly gratified with the statement and reassurance of support and friendship towards Nigeria. We have to keep an eye on the main objective of this government, when Mr. President was elected, security was number one of his priorities and it is something he really wants to be able to deliver for Nigeria. “Without security, everything else fails, investments go out of the country, regular migration out, it will be a vicious cycle. “We will all be losers and our children, generation to come will all be affected. What we do today will really determine the future of this country. That is why this government gives priority to security, that this government would have to live in peace and security. And we have to keep our country together. “What we have done today, will really define the future of the country and that is why Mr. “President is absolutely determined that security has been made and Nigerians have to live in peace and security and that we have to keep our country together. We listened to each other and clarified some areas.” Onyeama, however, said the government was already discussing with Twitter on lifting the suspension. He said: “As you yourself have said, discussions are ongoing with Twitter, we want to see how that progresses. I am unable to specify the suspension’s duration at this time. Social media and our partners are the subject of conversations. “Really responsible communication is the fundamental requirement. We are aware of the influence words may have, both positively and negatively. You understand that when you have the authority to direct and assist the communication of billions of people worldwide, you also have obligations. Certainly, there must be obligations attached. So, the requirement will be responsible media use, which must be followed. Adedayo Akinwale and Michael Olugbode in Abuja, Chimelie Ezeobi in Lagos.

1.3  Objectives of the study

The following is this study’s main goal:
To identify the causes of Twitter’s suspension
To ascertain how the Twitter ban has impacted the flow of information in Nigeria
To identify appropriate strategies for making information transmission simple
To learn how to enhance Nigeria’s information distribution research issues

1.4  Research questions

For the study, the following inquiries have been prepared:
1.  What are the causes of Twitter’s suspension?
2.  How has the Twitter ban altered the way information is spread in Nigeria?


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