The purpose of this study was to assess the physicochemical and sensory properties of maize, soybean, and tigernut-based infant food that could be used in rural households.

The study used a Randomized Controlled Trial Design: Soybean seeds were washed, soaked overnight, cooked, dehulled, dried, and milled into flour fine enough to pass through a 300m sieve. Tigernut tubers were washed and soaked for 96 hours before being dried and milled into flour (300m). Three weaning foods were prepared: STF1 (Tigernut: 75%; Soybean: 15%); STF2 (Tigernut: 65%; Soybean: 25%); and STF3 (Tigernut: 55%; Soybean: 35%), each with 10% full cream powdered milk (FCM) (FWD). The proximate, energy, pH, mineral, and organoleptic qualities of the samples were determined. A commercial brand based on maize, soybean, FCM, and additives served as the control.

The outcome demonstrates The samples differed in terms of proximity, energy, and mineral content (P0.05). FWDs had higher (P0.05) levels of protein, ash, fat, fiber, energy, and minerals than the control. STF3 had higher levels of ash, protein, fiber, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and zinc (P0.05). STF3 had higher (P0.05) panelist ratings for all sensory attributes among the FWDs and compared favorably to the control.

When compared to the control, STF3 received a higher (P0.05) rating for overall acceptability. The findings suggested that STF3 may hold promise for the delivery of low-cost, nutrient-dense infant food to low-income households.

In conclusion, this study demonstrated the potential suitability of tigernut flour in weaning food formulation. Despite the fact that all of the formulated diets met the infant nutrition standard,

STF3 (Tigernut 55%; Soybean 35%; 10% milk) was found to be the most promising formulation when the dietary profile and sensorial ratings were taken into account. This suggests that underutilized tigernut tubers could be used to make adoptable household cheap weaning food with soybean that compares favorably to commercial brands. This could be a long-term solution to malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa.



1.1 The Study’s Background

In most developing countries, infants and young children are malnourished. Infant growth is extremely rapid in the first and second years of life, and breast milk alone cannot meet the child’s nutritional needs. The infant needs supplementary feeding starting from 46 months (Achinewhu, 1987; Ijarotimi and Famurewa, 2006). Many brands of preparatory Foods have been developed and marketed; however, these brands are too expensive and thus out of reach for low-income families. The high cost of proprietary weaning food and animal proteins, combined with poor feeding practices, is primarily responsible for exacerbating childhood malnutrition (Dutra-de –Olivera, 1991). Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is most common during the critical transition period when children are weaned from liquid to semisolid or fully adult foods. In addition to mother’s milk, children require nutritionally balanced, calorie-dense supplementary foods (Berggren, 1982; Cameroon and Hafvander, 1971). Several studies have found that the majority of weaning foods consumed by children in many developing countries are deficient in essential macro and micronutrients (Levin et al., 1993; Brabin and Coulter, 1994).

Milward and Jackson (2004)). In light of this nutritional issue, several strategies have been developed to formulate weaning food (Lalude and Fashakin, 2006; Ijarotimi and Ashipa, 2006; Ijarotimi and Bakare, 2006) by combining locally available underutilized food crops that complement one another.

Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) is a widely available but underutilized crop in Nigeria. It is a member of the Cyperaceae family, which produces rhizomes from the base and is somewhat spherical. Protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins are abundant in the tubers (Alobo and Ogbogo, 2007; Oladele and Aina, 2007). Furthermore, tigernut tubers could be used to treat flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery, and excessive thirst (Chevallier, 1996). The use of a readily available underutilized crop to supplement legumes such as

Soybeans have the potential to alleviate infant malnutrition by developing a simple household low-cost weaning food. As a result, the challenge is to create a nutrient-dense supplementary infant food from locally available underutilized crops that can be adopted at the household level.

1.2 Soybean Applications

When a farmer sells soybeans to a grain dealer, the beans may end up in a variety of final destinations. A 60-pound bushel of soybeans will yield approximately 11 pounds of crude soybean oil and 47 pounds of soybean meal when processed. Soybeans contain approximately 18% oil and 38% protein. Soybeans are a common ingredient in livestock feed due to their high protein content. Soybeans are processed into oil (see below) and meal (for the animal feed industry). A

A smaller percentage is processed for human consumption and turned into products such as soy milk, soy flour, soy protein, tofu, and a variety of retail food items. Soybeans are also found in a wide range of non-food (industrial) products.

Every year, some soybeans are required to produce another crop. The seed industry grows, harvests, and purchases high-quality soybeans to use as seed for the following year’s crop. Researchers in the seed industry are focused on developing new soybean varieties with exceptional characteristics such as high yield, lodging resistance, nematode resistance, herbicide tolerance, and many other desirable traits.

Human Consumption

Almost all soybeans are processed for oil. Soy processors (such as Cargill and ADM) separate the oil from the meal from raw soybeans. The oil could be

Refined for use in cooking and other edible applications, or sold for biodiesel production or industrial applications. The high-protein fiber that remains after the oil is removed is baked and sold for animal feed.

Soybean oil is used in the preparation and frying of foods. Margarine is a soybean oil-based product. Soybean oil is used to make salad dressings and mayonnaise.

Some foods contain soybean oil (tuna, sardines, etc.) Soybean oil is commonly found in baked breads, crackers, cakes, cookies, and pies.

Animal Meal

The high-protein fiber (what remains after the oil is removed during processing) is toasted and made into animal feed for poultry, pork, cattle, other farm animals, and pets. Soybean consumption is high in the poultry and swine industries.

meal. More than half of the soybeans processed for livestock feed are fed to poultry, one-quarter to swine, and the remainder to beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pet food.

Soy protein is increasingly being found in fish food, both for home aquariums and for eating fish. Most marine species were once fed fish meal, but due to scarcity and rising costs, producers have switched to high protein soymeal for a variety of marine species. Soy protein can be found in most animal feeds around the world.

Other Applications


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