EVALUATION OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

ABSTRACT

The two most prevalent endocrinopathies in the general population are diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD). Alterations in thyroid function are frequently linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study’s objective is to assess TD in T2DM patients who are seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital in Sokoto’s Endocrinology Clinic. An analysis of fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyrorine (T3), thyroxin (T4), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and low density lipoproteins was performed on blood samples taken from 80 Type 2 diabetic patients and 80 non-diabetic (control) patients (LDL-C). When compared to controls, diabetics’ levels of FBS, HbA1c, cholesterol, TG, and LDL-C were found to be significantly higher while their levels of HDL-C were significantly lower (non diabetic patients). T3 and T4 levels were noticeably low, while When compared to non-diabetics, Type 2 diabetics had significantly higher TSH levels. FBS and HbA1c have a very strong positive correlation according to Pearson correlation, whereas these sugars have a weak positive correlation with thyroid hormones (TSH,T3,andT4). Diabetes mellitus metabolic control may be complicated by thyroid dysfunction (DM). To stabilize metabolic control, patients must therefore recognize and, if necessary, treat thyroid dysfunction.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Thyroid dysfunction (TD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are the two most prevalent endocrine disorders in the adult population (Diezet al., 2011). Because of increased urbanization, which promotes the development of obesity due to reduced physical activity and increased consumption of refined foods and snacks globally, the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising more quickly than any other form of diabetes (Zimmet, 1999; Zimmetet al., 2001). Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), two thyroid hormones that may either be elevated or decreased, have a direct and indirect impact on blood glucose homeostasis (Udionget al.,2007).

Hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by elevated levels of free thyroid hormones in the blood, causes polyphagia, improves gastrointestinal absorption of glucose, hastens insulin degradation, and stimulates glycogenolysis, all of which result in hyperglycemia (Webb,2004).

Hypoglycemia may result from reduced hormone levels associated with hypothyroidism (Webb, 2004;

(Cool, 2003)

For Type 2 diabetics with pre-existing dyslipidemia and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothyroidism, the most common thyroid dysfunction, has more serious consequences (Cooper,2003;Rama et al; 2003; Johnson, 2006).

Thyroid hormones also significantly influence lipid synthesis, mobilization, and metabolism (Dias et al., 2011; Murray et al., 2000).

 

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