GENETIC EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY

abstract

In order to assess the growth, reproductive, and blood biochemistry parameters of parents and their young Japanese quail, a study was carried out in a Northern Guinea Savannah region. Six hundred and thirty Day-old Chicks (DOC) and two hundred and twenty Day-old Chicks (DOC) were used in total for the base generation and the first generation, respectively. The weights were taken using a sensitive (0.01 g) digital scale. The average growth rate (Agr), relative growth rate (RGR), 4-week body weight (BW4), and 8-week body weight (BW8) were recorded as part of the physical examination (Rgr). Age at sexual maturity (ASM), weight at sexual maturity (WtAsm), egg weight at sexual maturity (EgAsm), average egg weight (Aveg), and egg laid at the 11th week of pregnancy were the reproductive parameters that were examined.  Eggs from female quails that were kept separately were used to calculate age (Egg11) and the proportion of egg weight to 4-week body weight (EgB4). In the 6th-week blood biochemistry study, glucose (Glu) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in accordance with Trinder (1969) and Kind and King (1954), respectively. Sexual dimorphism was seen within and between generations for body weight. In the base and first generation, there was no significant difference between the genders for BW4 (P>0.01), but the females had a higher BW8 than the males (P0.01). Additionally, the BW4 and BW8 of the base generation were significantly (P0.01) higher than those of the first generation. The observed variation in growth parameters had an impact on the effectiveness of reproduction. The base generation’s quicker-growing birds were significantly Although they were significantly (P>0.01) younger at sexual maturity, they were significantly (P0.01) heavier at sexual maturity and had a heavier egg weight. According to the study on blood biochemistry, there were no significant differences between males and females in each generation for the relevant blood parameter; however, the first generation had significantly higher Glu levels than the base generation but significantly lower ALP levels. When compared to the males in both generations, the females had a higher coefficient of variation for the blood biochemistry. For this study, it was found that growth rate and ASM have a positive phenotypic correlation coefficient. While ALP and Glu are negatively correlated, reproductive traits are typically positively correlated. Dimensions of repeatability

According to estimates, growth traits had a higher capacity for genetic transmission than blood biochemistry or reproductive traits.

INTRODUCTION

Coturnix coturnix Japonica, also known as the Japanese quail, is a significant livestock in Nigeria and many other countries. It is raised as the tiniest species of avian for the production of meat and eggs (Panda and Singh, 1990). When compared to chickens, their production is favored because they are more widely accepted, require less time and space, grow quickly, reach sexual maturity earlier, have greater laying capacity, have shorter generation intervals, and are disease resistant. These characteristics of coturnixs have made it easier to produce and raise them for commercial purposes, primarily for meat in Europe, eggs in Japan, and frequently as dual-purpose birds in other Asian nations (Minvielle, 1998). Additionally, they serve as experimental animals for

For extensive use in numerous studies, including those involving growth, breeding, and selection (Kayang et al., 2004) and researches (Baumgartner, 1994). It is raised commercially in Nigeria for the purpose of producing eggs and is used for research.

Numerous scientists have concentrated their genetic research on enhancing only economic traits. Because selection, breeding, and genetic improvement have a noticeable impact on blood biochemical characteristics, and because researchers use blood biochemical parameters as markers in livestock species to improve productivity and reproductive performance, a wider perspective of improved and efficient genetic study has emerged (Emmerson, 2003; Nguyen and Tran, 2003). In farm animals, genetic resources like serum enzymes, proteins, and bilirubin have been recognized as genetic markers (Pagot, 1992). Numerous studies have poultry birds’ performance has been correlated with a few blood parameters, such as plasma Alkaline Phosphatase activity in Rhode Island birds (Orunmuyi et al., 2007), the correlation between growth and blood constituents in Japanese quail by Faraht et al. (2010), and variation of plasma constituents at various ages of female Japanese quail (Hassan, 2010).

 

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