Hormones are chemical substances produced via way of means of animals to co-ordinate their physiological activities. They acts as messengers, produced in and launched from one type of tissue to regularly stimulate or inhibit a few method in a distinctive tissue over an extended period. The significance of person hormones varies among sexes and age and a disruption of the endocrine equilibrium might also additionally bring about a couple of moves e.g the male hormone testosterone controls many approaches from the improvement offoetus to libido withinside the adult. Alternatively, one characteristic can be managed via way of means of a couple of hormones, e.g. the menstrual cycles entails estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Hormones are important innormal improvement, maturation and physiological functioning of many important organs and approaches withinside the frame (Annamaria, 2012).

However, like every other chemical substances of herbal or artificial origin, hormones can be poisonous to residing organisms beneathneath positive circumstances. The toxicity can be because of an extra of its normal (physiological) action. Hormones, like different chemical substances, may exert direct poisonous moves now no longer associated with their endocrine (physiological) moves (Annamaria, 2012).

Besides the endogenous corticosteroids (cortisol, cortisone) and people suspected to be endogenous (prednisone, prednisolone), there are artificial exogenous corticosteroids (dexamethasone, betamethasone), advanced due to their anti inflammatory properties.

Estrogens, androgens, gestagens and corticosteroids are steroids which act as hormones. The discern compound from which all steroids are derived is ldl cholesterol. The class of steroid hormones may be executed in line with their organic interest and pharmacological consequences which incorporates the intercourse steroids, a subset of hormones generating intercourse variations and duplicate together with estrogen, gestagens and androgens. The 2nd institution is the corticosteroids which can be glucocorticosteroids, entails in metabolism and immune characteristic and mineralocorticosteroids, entails withinside the law of the blood extent and electrolyte content.

They also can be categorised upon their endo or exogenous origin. Steroid hormones which can be biosynthetically gift withinside the frame are the endogenous hormones and they’re chemical messengers from one cell (or institution of cells) to every other e.g (estradiol). Exogenous steroids also are referred to as xenobiotics are overseas compounds which can be obviously or synthetically produced e.gmethyltestosterone (Noppeet al., 2008).

Apart from the endogenous corticosteroids (cortisol, cortisone) and people suspected to be endogenous (prednisone, prednisolone), there are the artificial exogenous corticosteroids ‘old’ systems. Well-recognised examples of those pills with a steroids systems are tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), norbolethoneanddesoxymethyltestosterone (DMT) (Noppeet al., 2008).

Cholesterol is a waxy substance made via way of means of animal liverand additionally provided in eating regimen thru animal merchandise suchas meats, poultry, fish and dairy merchandise. Cholesterol isneeded withinside the frame to insulate nerves, make cellmembranes and convey positive hormones, and it’s miles animportant lipid in a few membranes. However, the bodymakes sufficient ldl cholesterol, so any nutritional ldl cholesterol

isn’tneeded. Cholesterol performs a primary function in human coronary heart fitness however may be each top and awful. High-densitylipoprotein (HDL) is ideal ldl cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is awful ldl cholesterol.

Triglycerides are every other fats withinside the bloodstream, the maximum not unusualplace sort of fats withinside the frame. High ranges oftriglycerides is likewise related to coronary heart disorder and diabetes.A excessive triglyceride stage blended with low HDL ldl cholesterol or excessive LDL ldl cholesterol appears to hurry up atherosclerosis, that’s the accumulation of fatty deposits in artery partitions that growth the chance for coronary heart assault and stroke (Hongbao, 2006).

1.2 Problem definition

Due to their important role in several bodily functions, hormones have also been used exogenously in animals and humans for the development of productivity and growth. Natural hormones and/or synthetic substitutes have been used in agricultural practices by farmers for decades because of their apparent ability to improve weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-producing animals that pose a significant risk. Corticosteroids may also be used illicitly for fattening animals, as it has been described that they can exert synergistic effects in combination with anabolic steroids or agonists (Courthey et al., 2002; Noppe et al.). ., 2007).

Both exogenous hormones and synthetic compounds that mimic their effects can alter the body’s endogenous balance and disrupt its natural function. Children are highly sensitive to exogenous steroid hormones due to their low endogenous levels, and slight fluctuations in blood levels can have profound effects on adolescent development and even cause future problems in adulthood. Yes (Aksglaede et al., 2006; Alves et al., 2007). Unexpected advancement during puberty in both African American and Caucasian American girls (Herman-Giddenset al., 1997).

In adults, many studies have found an association between breast cancer risk and persistently elevated levels of circulating estrogen and androgen (Kaaks et al., 2005; Yager & Davidson, 2006). . Also by Swan et al. Data published in 2007 suggest that maternal beef consumption alters intrauterine male testicular development and may affect adult fertility.

In the human diet, meat is considered the main source of fat, especially saturated fat (SFA), which is associated with diseases associated with modern life, especially in developed countries. Coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis are among the leading causes of death in humans and are closely associated with dietary intake of cholesterol and saturated fat (Simopoulos, 2002, 2004). Additionally, HDL is thought to be beneficial because higher HDL levels are correlated with lower risk of adverse cardiovascular events (American Heart Association, 2007). Elevated levels of LDL and triglycerides are considered harmful. This is because elevated levels correlate well with poor cardiovascular outcomes (American Heart Association, 2007; Segrest, 2002).

1.3 Importance of research

With regard to hormone content, all foods of animal origin contain steroid hormones and metabolites, but their concentrations vary according to food type, sex, age, and physiological stage of the animal. , 2001; Poelman et al., 2005a, 2005b). In fact, meat is by far one of the most naturally contaminated foods. (Maume et al., 2001, 2003; Poelman et al., 2005a). With regard to potentially toxic substances and their derivatives used in animal husbandry, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that “safety is We can guarantee it,” he concluded.

However, in order to demonstrate the safety of endogenous sex steroids, the residual concentrations of endogenous steroids in treated food animals under the proposed conditions of use must not exceed this 1% tolerance. You have to demonstrate that something like gain. In 1988, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert on Food Additives (JECFA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded that residues found in processed animal meat were determined to be safe for . The World Health Organization recommends reducing your daily fat intake to 30% of your total energy intake and limiting saturated fat to 10% of your caloric intake. It is also recommended that cholesterol intake not exceed 300 mg per day. Dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and reduce the likelihood of developing some cancers, asthma, and diabetes.

1.4 Purpose of the survey

To identify the health impact of steroid-fed livestock in the Lagos market and the impact of their lipid profile on human nutrition.

1.5 Purpose of the survey

1. Determine the presence of dexamethasone (a steroid) in chicken, mutton, pig, shevon, and beef blood samples.

2. Determine the lipid profile “cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL)” of blood samples of the above meat samples.


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