The purpose of this study was to see how peer pressure and time management affected the academic performance of in-school teenagers in Benin City’s Oredo Local Government Area. The study looked at how peer pressure affects in-school adolescents’ academic performance in Oredo Local Government Area, Benin City, as well as how time management affects in-school adolescents’ academic performance in Oredo Local Government Area, Benin City. The survey descriptive research design was used in this study. The survey yielded a total of 141 valid replies. Ausubel’s (1963) meaningful learning theory was used in this investigation. The findings revealed that peer pressure has a significant impact on academic performance of in-school teenagers in Oredo Local Government Area, Benin City, based on the responses received and analyzed. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that time management has a significant impact on academic performance of in-school teenagers in Benin City’s Oredo Local Government Area. According to the findings, in-school adolescents should be counseled and instructed on time management and the negative impacts of peer pressure. This will improve their academic performance directly.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Significant bodily changes occur as children grow and develop. They enter puberty as a result of these changes. Adolescence is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood, characterized by biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes (Grabber; Brooks-Gunn & Peterson, 1996). Adolescence is a challenging time in life. This corresponds to what Nwachukwu (2002) described as a difficult period in which physical, mental, and social changes occur rapidly. In other words, adolescence is a time when a person’s physical, mental, and social development accelerates dramatically. It is a period of transition that comprises significant biological, social, emotional, and cognitive changes that occur rapidly over a short period of time (Smith, 1998).
Adolescence has long been seen as a vital developmental stage. Adolescence is portrayed as a period of storm and stress in popular discourse, plays, films, drama, and books, especially in a technologically advanced culture (Nwachukwu, 2002). Adolescents in Nigeria are generally categorised as youths. This is consistent with Ibeh (1990), who stated that teenagers in Nigeria attend secondary schools, polytechnics, institutions of education, and universities. Many researchers agree that adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and maturity, including (Uba, 1987; and Adesomowo, 1988). It refers to the time in a person’s life when physiological and psychological processes are transitioning from puberty to adulthood.
Erikson and other behavioral scientists agree that adolescence is a time of turmoil and stress (Nwachukwu, 2002). The physiological changes that occur during puberty, as well as the need to complete development tasks imposed by society on adolescents, such as the pressure to achieve independence, vocational preparation, the development of a basic philosophy of life, and sexual adjustment, are some of the issues that adolescents face (Nwachukwu, 1993). It is also seen to be a pivotal stage in psychological development, necessitating fundamental personality reorganizations. Adolescents, according to Lewin (1989), have a rapidly expanding life space along geographic, social, and future time dimensions, and are trapped in an uncertain overlap between child and adult responsibilities. The expanding of the life area brings the kid to numerous ambiguous or out-and-out conflict situations, which he is ill-equipped to deal in a dynamic and diversified culture. Adolescents, in other words, suffer from psychological issues such as aggression, anger, shouting, impudence, fighting, truancy, depression, moodiness, disruptiveness, distractibility, gangsterism, and even cultism. They are unable to control and even emerge from circumstances due to these issues.
Adolescents in school are students between the ages of 12 and 18 who are enrolled in school. There is speculation that in-school teenagers with these psychosocial issues may be unable to focus on their studies, affecting their grades. Uncertainty of role, similarly creates ambiguities for the adolescent who, for example, is at one time expected to behave as an adult and at another is treated as a child.
To many specialists, like (Lingren, 2001) adolescence is presumed to be a psychologically stressful and critical period, characterized by a variety of special types of behavior.
Those affecting peer connections are among the most remarkable psychological transformations of adolescence. As children mature and enter early adolescence, they become more involved with their peers and attracted to peer identification. They begin to doubt adult standards and the need for parental supervision as their physical, emotional, and social transformations accelerate. They find it comforting to seek counsel from peers who understand and empathise with pals who are in similar situations. They believe that by putting their new ideals and views to the test with their peers, they will be less likely to be mocked. (Lingren, 2001).
A peer might be someone you look up to or someone you consider to be your age or ability equal. Academic success may be influenced by peer pressure. This may be true because when an in-school adolescent is subjected to negative peer pressure, he or she may lose sight of why he or she is in school, and this will undoubtedly damage his or her academic performance. Academics recognize that a child’s peer has an impact on accomplishment, according to Kirk (2000), but the amount of that effect has remained an open subject with no definitive solution.
Peer pressure refers to the influence of people of similar position or age on one another. Peer pressure is defined as the emotional or mental pressure exerted by persons in the same social group (such as the same age, grade, or status) to act or behave similarly to themselves (www.nation/tcc.org/tcc/). Adolescent behavior is heavily influenced by peer pressure, which reflects young people’s desire to fit in and be accepted by others. Peer pressure is defined as an emotional urge from persons of the same age, grade, or status to behave in a similar way to themselves (www.rho.org/htm/glossary.html).
Peer pressure is a set of group dynamics in which a group with which one feels at ease can impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors overriding personal habits, individual moral inhibitions, or unique inclinations. Peer pressure is defined as the emotional force exerted on members of the same social group by the imposition of the group’s norm of attitude or behavior.
Peer pressure can be a beneficial force that motivates or challenges people to accomplish their best. When an in-school adolescent who performs poorly in academic activities joins classmates who conduct group study and read well and succeeds academically, that peer may have a favorable effect on his colleagues. Peer pressure can sometimes lead to actions that are inconsistent with one’s sense of right and wrong. In other words, we term negative peer pressure when it causes someone to do activities that others disapprove of. Peer pressure can affect you in a variety of ways, such as joining a group of people who use alcohol or other drugs. It could also lead to the decision to have a boyfriend or girlfriend, as well as the decision to join a group whose members are obsessed with what they wear and loiter around. Peer pressure has been observed among Delta State students. During school hours, in-school adolescents might be observed strolling around the streets, watching movies, and attending parties, as is customary. Among their classmates, When this happens, the adolescent becomes depressed, which can affect his or her academic performance. Peer pressure can exist in the workplace, at school, or in society as a whole. It can affect people of all ages as well as the general public. Peer pressure can affect people in a variety of ways, but we’re interested in how it affects in-school adolescents’ academic performance. Adolescents engage in loitering and truancy during school hours in order to attain peer cleavage, which is detrimental to academic performance. Furthermore, the desire to engage in other harmful behaviors such as consuming alcohol or smoking cigarettes might cause pressure in adolescents, affecting their academic performance.
There is ongoing discussion about whether in-school teenagers who experience negative peer pressure perform worse academically than those who experience positive peer pressure. This work, on the other hand, will reveal the genuine location.
According to Lakein (2003), the topic of how adolescents manage their time is important. It’s critical to get to know yourself so you can make informed decisions about what you want to do and how to best use your time to do it. We all have 168 hours in a week to do as we choose; nevertheless, some people tend to make greater use of this time than others.
Planning and scheduling activities, structuring tasks in a prioritized sequence, allocating time to tasks according to their priority, and assisting in the achievement of goals are all examples of time management (Achunine, 1995). The capacity to manage and regulate time is known as time management. Planners, calendars, and other time management tools are valuable tools. Routine implementation is a method of arranging actions that enforce regiments to meet a person’s job and production activities.
Time management provides a variety of practices that can help a person become more productive at getting things done. Time management is a misnomer because time flows regardless of what we do; the only thing we have control over is ourselves. As a result, time management is primarily concerned with self-management. Time management can be defined as an individual’s or a group’s capacity to effectively manage their time in order to achieve specific objectives.
Time management is defined as a set of behaviors that are thought to increase productivity and reduce stress (Misra, 2000). Implementing time management tactics helps to organize various elements of one’s life, allowing one’s time to be used to complete all of the chores required to reduce stress. A student’s academic performance and accomplishment will improve by performing assignments in a regular and structured manner. Huge assignments should be started far before their due dates, large assignments should be broken down into smaller ones, and minor chores should be completed on a regular basis. Setting goals and priorities, using lists and mechanics, having an organized workspace, and having a sense of time control are all effective strategies (Misra, 2000). According to Misra, an in-school adolescent who wastes his or her time on unrelated activities rather than concentrating on his or her schoolwork may suffer academically.
The image of students loitering about on television and on the roads gives the impression that Delta-State students do not manage their time well. Academic performance may be harmed if this is the case.
The learning outcomes of a child can be described as their academic performance. This covers the knowledge, skills, and ideas they’ve learned and practiced both inside and outside the classroom during their studies (Epunam, 1999). According to a State Committee Meeting of the West African Examination Council (WAEC) on students’ performance in the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) (2005-2007) in Nigeria, Delta State included, thirty percent (30%) of the candidates received grades 1-6 (credit and above) in the same number of subjects.
The performance ranges, however, were not the same. In 2005, performance percentages ranged from 31.76 percent to 66.47 percent; in 2006, it ranged from 33 percent to 53 percent; and in 2007, it ranged from 30.91 percent to 63.09 percent. This study will determine whether or not the claim that peer pressure and time management affect performance is correct. This is why research on the effects of peer pressure and time management on academic achievement of in-school teenagers in Edo State’s Oredo Local Government Area is necessary.