Unwanted pregnancies that result in abortions and a slew of abortion-related consequences have emerged as a major reproductive and public health issue around the world. This issue affects millions of women worldwide and is one of the leading causes of maternal illness and death.

According to the World Health Organization (2017), approximately 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 and one million girls under the age of 15 give birth each year, while approximately three million girls aged 15 to 19 have an unsafe abortion each year. Furthermore, 75 million of the world’s estimated 180-200 million births are unplanned, with the majority of these conceptions occurring in adolescence (UNDP et al 2003). Each year, 56 Millions of induced abortions are performed worldwide (WHO 2017). Unfortunately, an estimated 2.2 million unwanted pregnancies occur among teenagers in Sub-Saharan Africa each year, and women aged 15 to 24 account for approximately 60% of unsafe abortions in Africa. (WHO 2005). Despite various efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations, Nigeria’s reproductive health indicators continue to be concerning. According to the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, only 10% of currently married young women in Nigeria use modern contraceptive methods (NPC 2013). According to the report, Nigeria was one of the countries that failed to meet the Millennium Development Goals, with a maternal mortality rate of 576 deaths per 100,000 live births. The majority of Nigerian family planning research has discovered

that secondary school students are well-versed in contraception. Despite their high sexual behaviors, the prevalence of contraception use among this population is alarmingly low.

Chima et al found that while 67.5 percent of secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria, had a good understanding of family planning, only 31.1 percent of sexually active respondents had ever used any type of family planning.

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) collaborated in 2011 to produce a guideline to prevent early births, with increasing teen contraceptive use as one of the primary recommendations. As a result, the goal of this study is to examine female junior secondary school students in Ogbomoso’s contraceptive knowledge, attitude, and use. The research

focused on female junior secondary school students. This is due to the fact that the majority of students in this group have been shown to engage in risky sex behaviors, making them more vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions (EO Orji, OA Esimai 2005).


Most female students in school have been observed engaging in unsafe sex practices, making them more vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions (Osakinle, E.O. 2003). Unplanned births among students continue to rise year after year due to a lack of contraception use worldwide. Contraception non-use is linked to a lack of understanding of their availability and practices (Marquess, T.) (2019). Academic institutions around the world, including Nigeria, are facing a number of challenges as a result of the

There are a lot of unintended births. High student dropout rates, significant financial losses for academic institutions, and a greater strain on public finances are among these issues (Makinwa, A. P. 1992). As a result, the goal of this research is to determine the level of contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practices among junior secondary students.


The primary goal of this study is to investigate junior secondary school students’ contraception knowledge, attitude, and practice. As a result, the specific goals are as follows:

1. Determine whether junior secondary school students have adequate knowledge of contraception use.

2. Determine junior students’ attitudes toward contraception use.

3. Determine the impact of contraception use on unintended pregnancy.


The following questions will guide this research:

1. Do junior secondary school students understand how to use contraception?

2. Are junior students hesitant and hostile to using contraception?

1. Do contraception pills prevent unintended pregnancy?


This study will provide useful information to policymakers in Nigeria as they work to improve family planning services for in-school students. In theory, this study will help students understand the scope and consequences of ineffective contraceptive use.

This study’s findings are intended to raise public awareness about the importance and proper use of contraceptive methods. However, feasible policy strategies that will improve or address students’ sexual health

The study is likely to produce findings that will benefit young people and society as a whole through the use of effective family planning methods.


This study looks at junior secondary school students in Ogbomoso’s contraception knowledge, attitude, and practice. As a result, the study is restricted to a few secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.


The major constraints of this study include language barriers, respondent attitudes, financial constraints, and time constraints, as the researcher had a limited time frame to complete this study.


Adolescents: Adolescents are a distinct group in this study in terms of their health needs and opportunities to reach out to them.

Programs for health prevention. Adolescents are defined as those aged 10 to 19 years old by the World Health Organization.

Contraception refers to artificial methods/techniques for preventing pregnancy, either temporarily or permanently. According to Pernoll (1994), contraception is used for a variety of reasons, including pregnancy planning, limiting the number of children, avoiding medical risks of pregnancy, and population control.

Contraceptive Methods: It refers to the use of artificial devices to prevent pregnancy and HIV/STIs.

Unsafe Sex: This is the practice of engaging in sexual activities that are more likely to result in negative consequences. Activities that involve the exchange or contact with semen, vaginal fluids, penile or vaginal discharges, or bloods are considered high risk in this work.


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