ABSTRACT

Because he possesses a higher logical faculty than other creatures, I seek to unveil the in-depth meaning of reason and morality using man as the focal focus of this discussion. We’ll also address the topic of whether reason has any effect or role in morality. Or, to put it another way, is reason essential for man to be moral? If this is the case, should reason be the sole source of morality? But what if that’s not the case? This project will primarily focus on Thomas Aquinas’ philosophy of reason and morality.

This work will be divided into four chapters to explain this. We’ll look at how morality should be guided by logic. Consider the introductory component in Chapter One.

The nature of morality will be sketched in the third section of chapter two. In order to give reason its meaning, we will define it and then investigate its nature in Chapter three. We’ll also look at the role of reason as a guide in other parts of man’s behavior, as well as the role of reason in morality.

We’ll be talking about “the good of man” in Chapter 4. As Aquinas would say, we will discuss life according to the dictates of reason, prudence, and right reason. The fourth chapter’s final section focused on evaluation and conclusion.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Man has been identified and defined as a rational animal; however, he would be a beast in behavior and a man in physical structure if not for his rationality, which distinguishes him from other animals. In this regard, G. Buffen stated that the distance between man and animals is infinite, and that the fundamental reason for this is that man is one without reason.

In the same vein, Aristotle claimed that reason, the highest faculty of the mind, is what distinguishes man from animals. The question today is why and how man is rational, and in what elements of his life does he differ from other animals, and what cause is responsible for these differences? It has been observed that man is uniquely distinguished from other animals.

Knowing that man is the only species with knowledge of morality and that he has reason over all other creatures, the question now is whether he is moral because of reason or because of some other physiological causes. If it’s because of the latter, one would reasonably ask, “Why are other creatures morally illiterate or nonmoral?”

A popular aphorism about man and reason has been proposed by Aquinas, on whom this book is based. It is “Bonum omins est, Secundum rationem esse,” or “Bonum omins est, Secundum rationem esse” (The good of man in life according to reason). As we will see, this statement does not rule out the possibility that other elements, like as the environment, can influence human life.

As a result of this rationality distinguishing man from other animals, it is impossible to deny that the above-mentioned features are due to his rationality.

Because the focus of this project is on morality and reason as a means of ensuring a good moral life, we’ll address topics like: does reason have any influence or role in morality? Or, to put it another way, is reason essential for man to be moral? If so, should morality be based solely on reason? But what if that’s not the case? It is undeniable that man alone possesses the knowledge of good and evil (morality), and that only rational beings can acquire this form of knowledge. In truth, God created man to be reasonable.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Certain behaviors will be condemned by all of us, individually or collectively, as morally evil and should not be done or committed by anyone. Murder, robbery, misappropriation of public finances, bribery and corruption are only a few examples. On the other hand, certain activities are deemed ethically excellent, such as kindness, hospitality, honesty, and so on. Again, due of differences in opinion, certain types of activity do not enjoy universal consensus on their goodness or badness, rightness or wrongness, such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, nuclear weapons, and so on.

It is now necessary for us to understand why certain activities are regarded good while others are considered wicked in Aquinas’ philosophy. What, according to Aquinas, is the standard for measuring success?

What does it ever mean to state that an action is good or terrible in and of itself, according to Aquinas’ assumptions? Is it our thought that determines if an activity is good or bad?

Some, like as Hume, believed that reason is and should be the slave of the passions, and that it can never pretend to be anything other than their servant and obeyer. Morality, they claimed, is decided by feelings.

Some thinkers, such as Thomas Aquinas and the stoic Duns Scotus, believed that right reason is the moral standard. As a result, anything that is ethically wrong is in line with correct reason. But how can one tell whether abortion, euthanasia, contraception, and other practices are morally acceptable, especially when there are so many educated people who disagree?

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

In relation to “Thomas Aquinas,” the major goal of this research/work study is to critically assess various notions of morality and reason, as well as see how morality is directed by reason. It is also meant to serve as a catalyst for prospective students at Nigerian universities and tertiary institutions to improve their grasp of morality and reason.

This research project aims to provide more light on rational and moral ideas, values, and advantages.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

One of the important aspects of this research is that it highlights the beauty of morality and reason in general. This research will also allow us to distinguish between ancient and modern ideas of morality and rationality.

It will be extremely beneficial if man pays attention to his rationality and moral values in order to build and live in a better society. If this is done, man and society will improve, reducing immorality and irrational behavior.

 

Another important aspect of this project/work study is that it aims to reveal some of the flaws in man’s approach to morality and reason.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The fundamental line of attention in this research/work study is Aquinas’ view of morality in relation to reason, which is in line with the precept of human endeavor and his surroundings. Different conceptions of morality and reason will also be given priority and specific attention in order to critically evaluate them.

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

According to Aristotle, a work’s process determines its specialization. The method shows how a thing is done. In light of this, I’ve opted to make extensive use of historical and critical philosophical inquiry methods. Other approaches to be used in this research/work study include a thorough review of other relevant philosophical and religious books, publications, articles, and authority.

Leave a Comment