Optimization of biodiesel production from two non-edible oils and their fuel and biodegradability properties were studied. Two oil raw materials (oleander and castor oil) were extracted from the seeds with an oil extractor and their physicochemical properties such as iodine number, water content, saponification number, acid number, viscosity, specific gravity and refractive index were measured. Most of these properties were within American Standard Test Method (ASTM) tolerances. Methyl esters were optimized by using methanol as solvent and varying conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst type and concentration, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio. To maximize biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed at a caustic catalyst concentration of 0.8% sodium hydroxide, 0.33% v/v alcohol/oil ratio, 1 hour reaction time, 60 °C temperature, and 150% v /v indicated excess alcohol. Optimized parameters for base-catalyzed transesterification biodiesel production gave maximum yields of 96% and 98% for yellow oleander oil and castor oil, respectively. Yellow oleander methyl ester (YOME) and castor oil methyl ester (COME) and their diesel blends were tested for fuel properties such as flash point, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, distillation, sulfur, phosphorus, water content and cetane number. was comparatively analyzed. and acid value. Yellow oleander methyl ester has been found to exhibit properties closer to his ASTM D 6751 fuel specification than castor oil. The results also indicate that yellow oleander oil and castor oil biodiesel are environmentally friendly, as it takes about 28 days after spill for YOME and COME to reach biodegradability of 82.4 and 87.3, respectively. This is better than petroleum diesel which has a biodegradability of 25.29 in 28 days. table of contents

table of contents
List of abbreviations and symbols

chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Presentation of research topic
1.2 Research Justification
1.3 Objectives and Objectives

Chapter 2
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Biodiesel as an alternative to petroleum diesel
2.2 Performance characteristics of biodiesel
2.3 Storage stability of biodiesel
2.4 Biodiesel production
2.5 Optimization of the transesterification process
2.5.1 Catalyst type and concentration
2.5.2 Effects of free fatty acids and moisture
2.5.3 Effect of reaction time and temperature
2.5.4 Mixing intensity
2.5.5 Alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and type of alcohol
2.5.6 Effects of using organic solvents
2.6 Transesterification under various conditions
2.7 Properties of biodiesel
2.7.1 Flash point
2.7.2 Viscosity
2.7.3 Turbidity and pour point
2.7.4 Specific Gravity
2.7.5 Calorific value
2.7.6 Sulfur
2.7.7 Cetane number
2.7.8 Residual carbon

chapter One

1.0 Introduction

The global energy sector depends on oil, coal and natural gas reserves for its energy needs (Meher et al., 2006). Nigeria is traditionally an energy-deficient country and exports more than 70% of her crude oil production. The country relies on imports of petroleum products to sustain its growth. Diesel fuel plays an important role in Nigeria’s industrial economy. The fuel is used in large trucks, city buses, generators, agricultural machinery, etc. (Anjana, 2000). However, diesel engines release various forms of pollutants into the environment that can endanger human health and harm the environment (Antolin et al., 2002). It is therefore important that the world expands its interest in new energy sources. A relatively new alternative that is currently booming around the world is fuel made from renewable raw materials or biofuels. Biofuels are well suited for decentralized development. H. They can be used to meet the needs of social and economic progress, especially in rural areas where access to fossil fuels is difficult or expensive (Nwafor and Nwafor, 2000; Ezeanyananso et al., 2010 ).

Amongst the various alternative fuels which could match the combustion features of diesel oil and can be easily adapted for use in existing engine technologies with or without any major modifications is biodiesel. Biodiesel fuel produced from vegetable oils (both edible and non edible) or animal fats is one of the promising possible sources that can be substituted for conventional diesel fuel and produces favourable effects on the environment. Biodiesel is recommended for use as a substitute for petroleum diesel mainly because it is a renewable, domestic resource with an environmentally friendly emission profile and is readily available and biodegradable (Zhang et al., 2003).

The research and use of biodiesel fuel as an alternative started in the 1980’s and the reason was the diesel crisis caused by the reduction of petroleum production by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the resultant price hike. The biodiesel produced from locally available resources offer a great promise for future application in Nigeria as it can help in attaining much needed energy security and being environment friendly, will help to conform to stricter emission norms (Ezeanyananso, 2010). Ricinus communis

Ricinus communis (Plate I) is a species in the Euphorbiaceae family, commonly known as castor bean or palma his Christi. Castor oil is perhaps the most underrated commodity in the vegetable oil industry, he is one of the most versatile vegetable oils and is used in more than 10 different industries.

Due to its unique chemical composition and structure, castor oil can be used as a raw material to produce a wide range of end products such as biodiesel, lubricants and greases, coatings, personal care and cleaning products, surfactants and oleochemicals. Compared to many other crops, castor beans require relatively low inputs such as water, fertilizers and pesticides. This crop can be cultivated on marginal land, providing great opportunities for more productive use of land resources in many parts of the world (Dokwadanyi, 2011). This plant likes well-drained, moist, sunny loam or sandy soil. Seedlings need fertile soil and daytime temperatures above 20°C to grow well. Although castor bean is native to tropical Africa, it grows widely in Nigeria as the weed is found in Borno, Sokoto, Jos, Zaria and many other places in Nigeria (Dokwadanyi, 2011). Although the plant has been reported to be used improperly, the fibers used to make rope can be extracted from its stems.The growing plant, once established, repels flies and mosquitoes. It is said that

Thevetia Plant (Thevetia peruviana)

Thevetia peruviana (Plate II) is an ornamental evergreen dicotyledonous shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family (Dutta, 1964). It is common in the tropics and subtropics, but is native to Africa, Central America, and South America. About 10-18 feet tall, leaves spirally arranged, linear, about 13-15 cm long. He has two varieties of this plant, one is the yellow oleander with yellow flowers and the other is Nerium oleander with purple flowers. Both strains flower and fruit year-round and provide a constant supply of seeds. It grows as a hedge and can produce between 400 and 800 fruits per year, depending on rainfall patterns and the age of the plant. The flowers are funnel-shaped with spirally twisted petals. The fruit is somewhat globose with a fleshy mesocarp and is 4-5 cm in diameter. The fruits are usually green, turning black when ripe. Each fruit contains nuts split lengthwise and crosswise. The fruit contains 1-4 seeds in the nucleus and the plant carries milky sap to all organs. In Nigeria, Thevetia peruviana has been cultivated by missionaries and explorers as an ornamental plant in homes, schools and churches for over 50 years (Ibiyemi et al., 2002). All parts of the plant are toxic due to the presence of glycosides. The toxicity of glycosides is reflected in accidental poisoning in children who eat plant seeds (Brewster 1986; Shaw and Pearn 1979). Some adults have been reported to have died after consuming oleander leaves in herbal teas (Haynes et al., 1985). According to Saravanapavan Atha (1985), about 10 fruit pits can be fatal for an adult and 1 fruit pit can be fatal for a child. In general, young children and livestock are at increased risk of poisoning by Thebetia perviana. Poisoning of livestock after consumption of Thevetia has been reported by various workers. For example, Singh and Singh (2002) reported that plant leaf, stem, and bark extracts killed fish. (Oji and Okafor, 2000). Pahwa and Chatterjee (1990) reported 80% and 90% mortality in rats fed 20% and 30% he Thevetia seed kernels after 10 days of feeding. 1.1 Presentation of research topic

The use of vegetable oil for biodiesel production can lead to higher food prices and food insecurity (Ezeanya Naso et al., 2010). Fortunately, non-edible vegetable oils produced primarily by seed-bearing trees and shrubs can provide an alternative with no competing food uses. is high, affecting biodiesel yields and capital costs. These oils can be pre-refined by reducing the free fatty acid (FFA) content through esterification and saponification processes. The fuel properties of biodiesel differ from petroleum diesel fuel. This means that different engine performance and emissions occur when biodiesel is used in diesel engines (Carraretto et al., 2004).

The high cost of biodiesel compared to petroleum-based diesel is a major obstacle to commercialization. Depending on the feedstock used, its cost is 150% higher than petroleum diesel. Approximately 70-95% of the total production cost of biodiesel is due to the cost of raw materials, solvents, and the crude oil refining process (Hass et al., 2006; Umer and Farooq, 2008).

Previous studies on biodiesel have not quantified the biodegradability of castor oil biodiesel. Additionally, scientists are working on better ways to optimize biodiesel.

Research legitimacy
Energy is the main driver of socio-economic growth in any country. It plays an important role in the overall framework of development around the world. Energy is an essential commodity and every aspect of human activity depends on it. It is also a factor of production, and its costs directly affect the prices of other goods and services (OPEC, 1994). Access to energy has been described as a key factor in the development of industry and the provision of essential services to improve quality of life, as well as a driver of economic development (Singh and Sooch, 2004).

Diesel fuel made from vegetable oil has virtually no sulfur content and no greenhouse gas emissions. Especially for CO2, it has excellent lubricating properties without storage problems. In addition, the vegetable oils provided by trees absorb more atmospheric carbon dioxide when burned (Erhan and Sharma, 2006). Diesel fuel therefore makes a significant contribution to reducing the increase in carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere. This development has led to a renewed focus on vegetable oils for biodiesel production (Kim et al., 2004).

Replacing diesel with locally produced renewable fuels will save foreign currency even for a large oil exporter like Nigeria. Developing countries can therefore use these types of projects not only to solve environmental problems but also to improve their economies (Ezeanya Manso et al., 2010). There is need for the production of biodiesel using a cheaper reagent, which contributes to the reduction of capital, and manufacturing cost. Furthermore, more investigations are needed about the fuel properties of biodiesels, diesel fuels and their blends before using in a diesel engine (Hass et al., 2006).

Aims and Objectives
The aim of this research is to produce biodiesel from non-edible oils, optimize methods and compare physico-chemical properties of the biodiesels. Specific objectives are to:

extract the oil from yellow oleander and castor plant using an oil press machine;
prepare biodiesels by transesterification;
optimize the production process by varying reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of catalyst and molar ratio of methanol/oil;
blend the biodiesels with petro-diesel to improve their fuel properties;
determine the flash point, relative density, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, pour point, oxidative stability, calorific value, distillation, sulphur, water content, cetane number, acid value and free fatty acid of diesel, biodiesel and different blends of these in accordance to appropriate ASTM standards and evaluate the biodegradability of the biodiesels and compare with petro-diesel.


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