PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CRETEVA ADANSONII STEM BARK

abstract

The phytochemical and anti-inflammatory properties of a methanol extract of Crateva adansonii stem bark were investigated in this study. Although many edible and non-edible plant parts are used in inflammatory treatment, Crateva adansonii stem bark has been used extensively. Fresh stem bark of Crateva adansonii was collected from Asata village in Enugu State for this study. At the Bioresource Development Centre, the cuttings were authenticated. They were then dried for one month at room temperature in an open lab space, ground into powder, and weighed on a beam balance as 460.6g. The powder was soaked in methanol for twenty-four to forty-eight hours to obtain a methanol extract, which was then concentrated into paste in a water bath at a temperature range of 30-550C. The anti-inflammatory test was performed on a population of twenty adult Wistar Albino rats. Each group of four (4) albino rats was divided into five (5) groups. They were given 3% tween-80 mixed with dichloromethane extract of Crateva adansonii, while the control was given 0.5ml of 3% tween-80. Acute inflammation was induced an hour after test substances were administered by injecting egg albumin into the subplanter region of the right hind paw, and edema was measured using mercury displacement for a time period ranging from 0-180 minutes. Within 30 minutes of induced edema, the anti-inflammatory effect was significant, with inhibition occurring in three phases of 0-30, 30-60, and 60-90. From 90-120 to 180 minutes. The third phase was the most inhibited. Crateva adansonii barks inhibited “prostaglandin” production, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect. create an inflammatory mediator

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Inflation is derived from the Latin word inflammare, which means to set fire to. It is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to potentially harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, and irritants. Inflammation is the vascularized tissue’s response to local injury caused by various stimuli such as infections, chemicals and biochemical agents, thermal or other physical trauma, antigen-antibody interaction, and so on (Carol, 1994). Wounds will not heal without an inflammatory response, and minor infections will spread. Though the goal of inflammation is to limit damage and restore function, some enzymes and toxic products within phagocytic cells are released to the point of causing tissue damage. The development of anti-inflammatory agents has rendered inflammation, which had previously been a threat to human life due to its complex, multifaceted nature, harmless. Its strength. In contrast to opioids, which affect the central nervous system, these anti-inflammatory agents or drugs help reduce pain by inhibiting inflammation. It also prevents and stops the effects of inflammation by acting on the body’s responses rather than directly opposing the causative agent (Stedman, 2000). These anti-inflammatory processes involve the process of balancing pro-inflammatory acute-phase reactants (Russell et al. 2000), altering biochemical pathway 78 forming prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzyme from catalyzing the reaction, and suppressing, compensating, and correcting mechanical and structural abnormalities through assistive devices (Masumoto et al.2009).
The inflammatory response is the oldest defense mechanism, both phylogenetically and ontogenetically. Although immune system cells are widely distributed throughout the body, they are activated when an infection or tissue damage occurs. They and their products must be concentrated at the site of damage.

 

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