PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE STEM BARK EXTRACT(S) OF INDIGOFERA ARRECTAHOCHST EX A. RICH (FABACEAE)

Abstract

The powdered bark of Indigofera arrecta was exhaustively extracted with methanol and vacuum concentrated at 40 °C using a rotary evaporator. The extract was later subjected to solvent partitioning to obtain soluble extracts of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol. General phytochemical screening of fractions revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenes, flavonoids and tannins. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes, S.feacalis, S.typhii, E.coli C. ulcerans, P. vulgaris, and C. albicans were tested using tube dilution and agar diffusion methods as described by NCCLS. Antimicrobial activity results ranged from 20 mm to 40 mm for n-hexane extract, 16 mm to 21 mm for ethyl acetate extract, and 20 mm to 27 mm for methanol, as indicated by zones of inhibition of microbial growth. did. extract. MIC results for n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts ranged from 7.5 mg/mL to 15 mg/mL. A MIC of 15 mg/ml for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for the n-hexane extract indicates that Indigofera arrect has a broad spectrum of activity. The n-hexane fraction was subjected to column chromatography using silica gel to obtain 87 fractions based on thin layer chromatographic analysis, which were combined and recrystallized from methanol to give a pure white solid, melting at 144°C. A crystalline powder was obtained. The structure of the isolated compound was determined by spectroscopic analysis and direct comparison of the data reported in the literature for stigmasterol (3β,22E-sigmaster-5,22-dien-3-ol) and the obtained data. it was done.

 

 

chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Definition of drug
Any chemical with no nutritional value can be called a drug
It is introduced into the body but causes some physiological effects in the system(Mbah, 2000). According to Dey (2006), pharmaceuticals, also called drugs or drugs, can be broadly defined as substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, alleviation, treatment or prevention of disease. Some drugs are naturally occurring in plants. These can be called botanicals. According to the strictest definition, these are drugs or chemicals that can affect health, but are not considered essential nutrients.Essential nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins. . Some medicinal products found in plants include gedunin and nimbolide from Azadirachta indica (neem) (Khalid and Duddeck, 1993). Santonin, a sesquiterpenoid lactone, is found in Artemisia species growing in Asia, and quinine and alkaloids are found in the bark of cinchona trees. Penicillin-β-lactams are produced by Penicillium fungi (Finar, 2003), and reserpine-alkaloids are isolated from the Rauwolfia plant. 1.2 Medicinal plants
According to the biblical record, the prophet Ezekiel reported that the fruit was edible and the leaves healing (Ezekiel 47:
12). Therefore, the use of medicinal plants dates back thousands of years, when the first humans used various plants to treat ailments.

 

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