The cover page

The title page

Page of approval




Contents table


1.0 General Introduction

1.1 Historical context of the study

1.2 Research problem statement

1.3 The study’s objectives

1.4 Importance of the research

1.5 The study’s scope

1.6 Question for research

1.7 The study’s limitations

1.8 Definition of terms



2.0 Introduction

2.1 Source of literature

2.2 Review of concept

2.3 Review of related work

2.4 Empirical studies

2.5 Summary of review



3.1 Research method

3.2 Fact finding method

3.2 Sources of Data

3.3 Population of the study

3.4 Sample and Sampling

3.5 Research Instrument

3.6 Method of Investigation

3.7 Method of Data Analysis


Data presentation and



Over the years, the Nigerian petroleum industry has faced two crippling challenges. The difficulties stem from the prevalence of militancy and pipeline vandalism in the Niger Delta.

While the former appears to have decreased significantly in the aftermath of the Amnesty agreement in 2009 (Okoli, 2013), the latter appears to have increased in both incidence and impact. Ogbeni claims the following:

In the last ten years, a total of 16,083 pipeline breaks were recorded, with 398 pipeline breaks (2.4 percent) caused by ruptures, while unpatriotic vandals were responsible for 15, 685 breaks (about 97.5 percent of the total number of cases) (Ogbeni, 2012, para 8).

Indeed, the rate of oil pipeline vandalism has been increasing. In Nigeria. According to the Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative’s (NEITI) 2013 annual report, Nigeria lost a total of 10.9 billion US dollars to oil theft between 2009 and 2011. (NEITI, 2013; Onoja, 2013). This loss emphasizes the significance of vandalism as a real issue in Nigeria’s oil industry. The impact of oil pipeline vandalism on Nigeria’s security has been amply demonstrated by its link to economic, environmental, and humanitarian losses and consequences (Onuoha, 2009). In effect, oil pipeline vandalism has been linked to negative consequences for the national economy. Despite its importance, the issue of oil pipeline vandalism has received insufficient attention in the existing literature. Again, the majority of the existing works in the field of

Inquiry has often been merely journalistic, lacking in analytical rigor and systematization. This has necessitated a thorough investigation of the problem. In this paper, an attempt is made to establish the relationship between oil pipeline vandalism and Nigerian national security. According to the paper, oil pipeline vandalism has unintended consequences that endanger Nigeria’s national security.

The commercial discovery of crude oil in Oloibiri in 1956 marked the beginning of Niger’s petroleum industry. Since then, the Nigerian economy has been largely reliant on petroleum. A network of oil pipelines was built to connect some states at strategic points to facilitate the distribution of crude oil product from the oil-rich Nigeria Delta to other parts of the country.

locations (Onuorah, 2007). (Onuorah, 2007).

Nigeria has a total pipeline network length of 5001 kilometers. There are 4315 kilometers of multiproduct pipelines and 666 kilometers of crude oil pipelines in total. These pipelines run across the country, connecting the 22 petroleum storage depots, four refineries in Port-Harcourt (I and II), Kaduna, and Warri, off-shore terminals in Bonny and Escravos, and jellies in Alas Cove.

Warri, Calabar, and Okirika (Onuoha, 2007, p.6). This network of oil pipelines transports crude oil to refineries in Port-Harcourt (I and II), Warri, and Kaduna over a distance of 719 kilometers. The multi-product pipelines transport products from refineries/import receiving jetties to the 22 petroleum storage depots located throughout the country. the nation. The storage infrastructure, which consists of 22 loading depots linked by pipelines of varying diameters, has a total installed capacity of 1,266890 (PMS), 676 400 (DPK), 1007 900 (AGO), and 74 000 (ATK) m3tonnes (Special Committee on the Review of Petroleum Product s Supply Distribution- SCRPPSD, 2000, p.10).


Over the years, vandals have repeatedly attacked the Nigerian oil pipeline infrastructure. In recent years, the frequency of such attacks has been quite concerning. In Nigeria, for example, there were 477 recorded cases of pipeline vandalism in 1999 alone (see Tables 2 below).

The constant occurrence of oil pipeline vandalism in Nigeria has raised the question of whether the pipeline networks were constructed in such a way that it precludes easy vandalism. This is in addition to the question of whether the pipelines are even being policed and protected. While laying the pipelines, some safety valves were considered. For example, the government acquired a 3.5-metre-wide right-of-way (ROW) on each side of the highway.

pipelines; additionally, the pipes were buried a miter deep to prevent accidental contact or vandalism. Despite these safety valves, recent experience in Nigeria has shown that the integrity and safety of these pipelines are constantly jeopardized due to vandalism and sabotage. The vandals cause pipeline breaks with the criminal intent of obtaining and appropriating petroleum products for commercial or personal use. The table below (Table 2) shows the frequency of oil pipeline vandalism in Nigeria in the 1990s.

Remarks on the Year Number of Incidents

1995 7 cases Only reported cases

1996 33 cases Only reported cases

1997 34 cases Only reported cases

1998 57 cases Only reported cases

1999 497 cases Only reported cases

If the figures in table 2 are correct,

If history is any guide, the incidence of pipeline vandalism has been increasing geometrically. Since 2000, this trend has accelerated. According to available statistics, Port Harcourt, which had about 600 pipeline breaks in 2003, had about 1,650 breaks from January to September of 2006. Similarly, the Warri axis increased from 100 to 600 pipeline breaks during the same time period (Amanze–Nwachukwu and Ogbu, 2007, p.14).

Pipeline breaks have also been reported in northern Nigeria, particularly in Kaduna and Gombe States (Onuoha, 2007).

In effect, available records show that the incidence of oil pipeline vandalism in Nigeria is on the rise. The vandals appear to have improved their criminal discipline, sophistication, and efficiency.

Oil pipeline vandalism appears to be done with ease and impunity. As a result, the occurrence has been increasing. A media report by Ogbeni (2012, para 5) summarizes the recent rise in oil pipeline vandalism in Nigeria as follows:

Between 2010 and 2012, a total of 2,787 pipeline breaks were reported on Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) pipelines, resulting in a loss of 157.81mt of petroleum products worth approximately $12.53 billion. The pipeline along the Gombe axis recorded 850 cases of pipeline vandalism, while the Kaduna system recorded 571 cases. The pipeline along the Warri axis recorded 548 cases of vandalism, while the Mosimi system pipelines in Lagos recorded 463 cases and Port Harcourt recorded fewer cases of vandalism, while the Mosimi system pipelines in Lagos recorded 463 cases and Port Harcourt recorded fewer cases of vandalism.


The extent to which Nigerian pipelines have been vandalized and large quantities of oil have been stolen, the country’s weak security forces, and the country’s leaders’ attitude toward this issue. The story of vandalized pipe lines in Nigeria is becoming more common; leaders vandalize property and no one says or does anything about it. The main issue in the research work has been pipe line vandalism.

Oil pipeline vandalism poses a serious threat to Nigeria’s national security. As previously stated in the preceding sections of this writing, the impact and implications of pipeline vandalism have been severely detrimental to Nigerian concerns about public safety and development. Thus, to put it mildly, The prevalence of oil pipeline vandalism in Nigeria has presented the country with a critical national security challenge over the years.


Due to the concurrent issues of vandalism in the country, which the leaders of this country do nothing about, the researcher seeks to bring to the attention of the country, the citizen of this great country, the implication of this incidence to our nation’s economic development.

Furthermore, the researcher’s objectives in this study are that at the end of this research work, it will help and bring an end to this issues, as it will educate the masses on the importance of securing their property because this assess is part of the nation’s own, which everyone in this nation is a part of.


The findings of this research will be beneficial to the nation because they will highlight the impact of vandalism on the economic development of this country, in this case the vandalism of a pipe line, and a highlight of its setback to the country.


This research work focuses on Nigeria, the vandalism of pipelines, and the effects and implications for the country’s economic development. This work primarily focuses on pipe line vandalism.


The researcher developed some research questions to guide her as she carried out this work in order to have a focal point in the study. Which of the following questions:

1. What are the causes of pipeline vandalism in the country?

2. Because the consequences of pipe line vandalism are severe for the country’s economy, what steps can be taken to secure and guide this pipe line?


During the course of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered numerous challenges and opposition, ranging from financial constraints to time constraints. These factors, in their own ways, slowed the rapid progress of this work, resulting in the researcher not being able to complete the research work on time.

Furthermore, within the area of study, the researcher encountered some other types of constraints that contributed to the limitation of this researcher’s work, such as access to data, information, and facts concerning the current study due to various reasons, some not willing to give out information that is to be within the workers.


A.R. Alkali, A.R. (2003). Nigeria’s foreign policy and international relations (2nd edition). NorthpointPublishers, Kaduna.

2. “Oil spills in Nigeria,” Googlesearch (2013). (retrieved, June 6, 2013).

Ilagha, c. (2007).

“Resource Management and the Niger Delta Crisis “M.Sc. Thesis submitted to Ahmadu Bello University’s Department of Political Science in Zaria (January)

4. P.M.G. Lyman (2007). Crime syndicates (fourth edition). Person Education, Inc. Prentice-Hall.

Mallory’s is number five (2007). Theories about the persistence of organized crime. Jones and Bartlet Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

6. NEITI (2013). Annual Report of the Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative, NEITI, Nigeria.

7. NNPC (2000).Report of the Special Committee on the Review of Petroleum Product Supply and Distribution, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.


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