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PREVALENCE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA IN PNEUMONIA PATIENTS

(A Case Study Of Unth Enugu)

ABSTRACT

 

Based on the fact that pneumonia is one of the most common afflictions of the elderly and children worldwide, the prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients was studied using the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study. A total of 50 samples were taken. 12 (24%) of the samples were sputum, while the remaining 38 (76%) were nasopharyngeal swabs from children who were unable to produce sputum using sterilized disposable swab sticks. Twelve patients (24%) were adults, while 38 (76%) were children under the age of. 29 patients (58%) were male, while 21 (42%) were female. Blood agar and chocolate agar plates were used to isolate bacteria. This was immediately followed by their suitable biochemical tests Five distinct organisms were isolated. They had 13 (26%) staphylococcus pneumonia, 17 (34%), streptococcus viridian, 3(6%), other staphylococcus species, 6(12%), mixed growth of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus species, and non-significant growth of staphylococci and streptococci. This study found that the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus is higher than that of streptococcus pneumonia, which was previously thought to be the most common pathogen causing pneumonia.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 

Bacterial an infection can cause severe infection in children, the elderly, and other people with weakened immune systems. These are people who are more vulnerable to infection due to an overall impairment of the immune response. Hiv infection, chronic disease, advanced age, and/or function of defense mechanisms (for example, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd), tumors, inhaled toxins, and aspiration) (Stephen 2002).
The trachea, bronchi, and lungs are normally free of communal and potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, when their reference is disturbed, they are vulnerable to invasion by organization from the throat or nose (fraser, 1996) Pneumonia is one of the most common infections of the lower respiratory tract (Jawetz, et ,2001).

1.1 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA 

The inflammation of the tendons is known as pneumonia. Pneumonia is defined as the filling of alveoli with pus and fluid as a result of pneumonia (Naster et al 2001). Macrophages are numerous in the long issues and reality move into the alveoli and airways to engage infection agents, thus preventing pneumonia from developing; however, when the defense mechanism is disrupted, causative agents are more likely to enviable the host (Yolande and Broduem 1987).
Pneumonia is an infection caused by various bacteria such as streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, and others that can lead to death in some cases. For example, William Henry Harrison, the first President of the United States, contracted pneumonia during his inauguration in 1841 and died as a result.

After only 31 days in office, he was given a ride. Other notable people who died from pneumonia include Sir Francis Bacon in 1626, who died after staffing chikens with now while conducting freezing experiments, and Thomas Stonewall Jackson in 1863, whose arm needed to be amputated after he was shot by one of his own sentries (Stephen 2002). Pneumonia is more common in cold weather and during the rainy season.

1.2 PNEUMONIA CLASSIFICATION
Pneumonia is classified into three types: acute, hospital-acquired pneumonia, acute, community-acquired pneumonia, and chronic pneumonia (Inglis 1996 a). ACUTE COMMUNITY ACQUIRED Pneumonia: This is defined as pneumonia that occurs either before or immediately after the mission to the hospital. It is one of the most common types of pneumonia that kills people all over the world (Fraser, 1996).
Acute pneumonia patients are typically Cough, chest pains, and fever are all symptoms. Coughing may or may not produce purulent sputum (Stephen, 2002). The most important outcome of actuate pneumonia is improved respiratory function, which should be prioritized ( Frasch and concopcion, 2000).
b. ACQUIRED ACUTE HOSPTAL: This type of pneumonia affects smokers, patients with prior chest distension or after surgery (particularly thoracis and upper abdominal), and ventilated critically ill patients (inglis, 1996). The final group has the greatest relative risk (Ross, 1994).
c. PERIODICAL PNEUMONIA: This has a slower onset and a longer course than actuate pneumonia. Because there is no single symptom complex, the diagnosis is frequently based on radiological findings (Frasch and cocaplion, 2002). Coughing may result in parnent sputum that is occasionally blood stained. 1.3 PNEUMONIA CAUSES
Extrinsic or intrinsic causes of pneumonia exist, as do various bacteria causative against it (Nester et al 2001).
Extrinsic factors include pulmonary irritant exposure or direct pulmonary injury, whereas intrinsic factors are related to the host.
The primary infection is caused by a qa virus, such as Rhinovirus or Adanovirus, but there is frequently a secondary infection with a bacteria pathogen from the upper respiratory tract, most commonly Streptococcus pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, also known as pnumococcus, appears to be the primary cause of many cases of pneumonia, particularly ldorar and bronche pneumonia, with Homophiles influenza as a frequent co-pathogen (Fraser, 1996), but these pneumonic infections are frequently misdiagnosed.

caused by a previous viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as the common cold (Wisconsin, 2003).
Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause fatal pneumonia after streptococcus pneumonia, is another secondary invader of the lower respiratory tract that can cause pneumonia (Staphen, 2002). Jawetz et al. 2001; Haemophilus influenza, Kiabsiella pneumonia, etc.).

JUSTIFICATION 1.4
Pneumonia infection is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the infection is spreading rapidly in Enugu, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the primary pathogen (Okafor 1992). As a result, it is necessary to determine whether this virulent organism is the primary bacterium that causes premnonia in Enugu. Although many people carry these bacteria in their threat, mouth, and nasopharyux, they are likely to contaminate the environment.  Sputum is expected to pass through the throat and mouth, as are commensals in the nasopharynx, which can also contaminate the nasopharyueal swab (Ross, 1994).

1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The following are the goals and objectives of this work: 1. Isolate bacterial pathogens from pneumonia patients.
2. Using UNTH as a cast study, determine the prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients.
3. Determine which aga group and sex are more vulnerable to this infection.

1.6 HYPOTHESIS 

Pneumonia is caused by Ho streptococcus pneumonia.
Pneumonia is not caused by H1 streptococcus.
H2 Streptococcus Pneumoniae have a sex and age relationship.

1.7 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of pneumonia in both children and adults. Other bacteria have also been implicated as the cause of disease in severe cases of pneumonia.

1.8 DIAGNOSIS

Streptococcus pneumoniae and other organisms (Causative pathogens) are diagnosed in pneumonia patients when they are grown from cultures of sterile fluids such as sputum from adult and nasopharynged swabs, as in the case of children who are unable to produce sputum, the clinical presentation varies from mildly to extremely ill patients (Wisconsin 2003). When specimens are cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar plates, Straptococcue pneumonia and other causative bacteria can be isolated. Media that facilitate the isolation of small numbers of pneumococci from sputum heavily contaminated with secondary invaders from the throat and mouth commensals of 5% horse blood is effective incubation should be in 5-10% coq (Gilks, 1997).
A battery of biochemical tests is used to detect the presence of of these microorganisms. Catalase optochin sensitive test and bile solubility test for Streptococcus pneumoniae, congulase test for Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza satellition test, and citrate utilization for Klebsiella pneumoniae (Cheesbrough 1984).

 

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