RESIDENTIAL BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Since independence, the Nigerian government has made a concerted effort in the area of quantitative (but not qualitative) supply of mass housing through massive budgetary and policy provisions; however, the rate at which existing ones are collapsing requires immediate attention. The number of building collapses across Nigeria is so alarming that it is difficult to predict the effects on the construction industry and the Nigerian economy as a whole. Imagine what edifices these buildings could have been if they had been built properly. According to reports, Nigeria, particularly Lagos State, has become the “world’s junkyard” of collapsed buildings worth billions of naira (Famoroti, 2005). It is unfathomable that a A county with such great potential in its construction industry can experience such a massive building collapse. Fadamiro defined building as “an enclosure for spaces designed for specific use, intended to control local climate, distribute services, and evacuate waste” in 2002. Buildings are structural entities that can secure themselves by transmitting weights to the ground. Buildings are further defined as “structures for human activities that must be safe for the occupants” (Odulami, 2002). However, as a result of their collapse, these same buildings have been posing treats and dangers to people either during or after construction. When a portion or the entire body of a structure fails and suddenly gives way, the structure as a whole collapses. It was unable to fulfill its intended function. The collapse of a building is an extreme case of building failure. It means that the superstructure completely or partially collapses (Arilesere, 2002). Building failure occurs when one or more elements of a building fail due to the inability of the material that makes up the components of such building elements to perform their original function effectively, which may eventually lead to building collapse. Buildings are intended to provide people with conveniences and shelter, but the same building has also served as a danger trap for the same people. Buildings are expected to meet basic requirements such as constructability, design performance, cost effectiveness, quality, safety, and on-time completion (Olusola, Atta & Ayangade, 2002). Buildings, in general, are Many projects are built that do not meet any of these basic requirements, despite the fact that they are expected to be elegant and functional. As a result, there has been an increase in the number of building collapses, some of which have claimed innocent lives. Many studies have been conducted, and various workshops have been held in major cities across the country by various bodies, government agencies, and institutions to investigate the causes of building collapse in Nigeria, but none have been able to determine how each of the determined factors directly leads to building collapse in the country. According to Olusola, structural design and quality management are two of the major causes of building collapse in Nigeria (2002). Material variability, testing, and quality management are all aspects of quality management. Variability, judgment factor, contractor variability, poorly skilled workers, and unprofessional conduct are all factors to consider. The study sought to investigate cases of residential building collapse in Nigeria in order to identify the causes, consequences, and solutions.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A defect or imperfection, deficiency or fault in a building element or component causes a building to collapse. It could also be due to a performance omission. The extent or degree of deviation of a building from the “as – built” state, which in most cases represents the acceptable standard within the neighborhood, locality, state, or country, can thus be related to the degree of building collapse. (Ikpo, 1998). Building collapse, on the other hand, can simply be defined as the total or partial/progressive failure of one or more components of a building, resulting in the building’s inability to perform its primary function of comfort, satisfaction, safety, and stability. Building collapses in Nigeria have become a major source of concern for all stakeholders, including professionals. in building industry, government, private developers, clients and users, as well as the neighborhood residents. The researcher’s concern about the increasing number of building collapses in Nigeria forms the basis for this study to determine the major causes, effects, and potential remedial measures for building collapses in Nigeria.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the study’s objectives:

1. Investigate the causes of Nigerian building collapses.

2. To determine the consequences of building collapse in Nigeria.

3. Determine the corrective measures or approaches to building collapse in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. What are the causes of Nigerian building collapses?

2. What are the consequences of Nigerian building collapse?

3. What are Nigeria’s corrective measures or approaches to building collapse?

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the study’s implications:

1. The findings of this study will educate the general public and the current government on the causes, effects, and solutions to building collapses in Nigeria.

2. This research will also serve as a resource base for other scholars and researchers interested in conducting additional research in this field in the future, and if applied will go so far as to provide new explanations for the topic.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study on residential building collapse in Nigeria examines the causes and effects in order to find a long-term solution to the problem of incessant building collapse in Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Inadequate funding tends to impede the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

REFERENCES

D. Arilesere (2000). The professionals’ role in preventing building collapse. Proceedings of a workshop on the causes, prevention, and treatment of building collapse (pp. 60-68). Lagos State’s Nigerian Institute of Building.

J.A. Fadamiro (2002). An examination of building regulations and standards in Nigeria, as well as the implications for building collapse. Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention, and Remedies, edited by D.R. Ogunsemi (pp. 28-39). Ondo State’s Nigerian Institute of Building.

F. Famoroti (2006, March 30). Before the next building falls down. The Punchline (p. 9)

I. J. Ikpo (1998). Application of the Weibull Distribution Technique in the Prediction of the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of Building Components, Nigerian Journal of Construction Technology and Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 79-87.

A.A. Odulami (2002). Specification and enforcement of building materials

on the job. Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention, and Remedies, edited by D.R. Ogunsemi (pp. 22-27). Ondo State Nigerian Institute of Building

K.O. Olusola (2002). Building structures’ structural stability. Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention, and Remedies, edited by D.R. Ogunsemi (pp. 50-73). Ondo State’s Nigerian Institute of Building.

K.O. Olusola, O. Ata, and J.A. Ayangade (2002). A preliminary investigation into the quality and structural strength of sandcrete blocks produced in Ile-Ife. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Journal of Environmental Technology, 1 (1&2):136-142.

on the job. Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention, and Remedies, edited by D.R. Ogunsemi (pp. 22-27). Ondo State Nigerian Institute of Building

K.O. Olusola (2002). Building structures’ structural stability. Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention, and Remedies, edited by D.R. Ogunsemi (pp. 50-73). Ondo State’s Nigerian Institute of Building.

K.O. Olusola, O. Ata, and J.A. Ayangade (2002). A preliminary investigation into the quality and structural strength of sandcrete blocks produced in Ile-Ife. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Journal of Environmental Technology, 1 (1&2):136-142.

 

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