Nigeria has recently experienced unprecedented levels of insecurity. This has made national security a major issue for the government, prompting a significant allocation of the national budget to security. To reduce crime, the federal government criminalized terrorism by passing the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2011, which included the installation of computer-based closed-circuit television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, increased surveillance and investigation of criminal-related offenses, increased physical security measures across the country aimed at deterring or disrupting potential attacks, and strengthening of segregation laws (Azazi, 2011). Regardless of these

Despite efforts, the country’s level of insecurity remains high. Furthermore, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), indicating that the country’s security situation has deteriorated. As a result, Adagba et al. (2012), Uhunmwuangho and Aluforo (2011) believe that the government’s efforts have not yielded enough positive results.

With lingering security challenges and the government’s inability to guarantee safety and security in the country, the question that everyone in Nigeria is asking today is, “Can there be security?” Is it possible to ensure the safety of people and property? Apparently, Nigeria’s security situation appears to be or has remained insurmountable, and many people have argued that government at all levels is to blame.

Others have argued that the situation has a political undertone or inclination calculated to serve the interests of certain political gods who have been dissatisfied and disgruntled with the country’s political manifestations, and that the government has not done enough by not confronting the situation head on and dealing with it decisively.

As a result, the goal of this paper is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on insecurity by integrating diverse explorations and to propose a security management strategy. In the following sections, we will look at the concept of insecurity, the causes of insecurity in the country, and our proposed model for security management in Nigeria to provide context for understanding and appreciating the enormity of the problem. Following that is an

An examination of the relationship between the security environment and business activities, as well as an assessment of the Nigerian security situation and its implications for business and long-term development. Finally, in keeping with the government’s call for everyone to help fight insecurity, the paper proposes a security management model that could aid in managing security challenges in the country.

1. Insecurity as an Idea

To understand the concept of insecurity, first present the concept of security. In the view of Akin (2008) security refers to “the situation that exists as a result of the establishment of measures for the protection of persons, information and property against hostile persons, influences and actions”. It is the presence of conditions in which people live.

A society can go about their daily activities without fear of endangering their lives or property. It encompasses all measures intended to protect and safeguard citizens as well as the resources of individuals, groups, businesses, and the nation from sabotage or violent occurrences (Ogunleye, et al, 2011). According to Igbuzor (2011), it requires protection from chronic threats as well as protection from harmful disruption.

Security, on the other hand, can be defined as the stability and continuity of one’s livelihood (a stable and steady income), predictability of daily life (knowing what to expect), protection from crime (feeling safe), and freedom from psychological harm (safety or protection from emotional stress that results from the assurance or knowledge that one is wanted, accepted, loved, and protected in one’s community or neighbourhood and by people around one.

It is concerned with the emotional and psychological sense of belonging to a social group that can provide protection). This explanation divided the concept of security into four dimensions. These dimensions, however, can be woven together to provide a composite definition of security as protection against all forms of harm, whether physical, economic, or psychological. However, it is commonly argued that security is not the absence of threats or security issues, but rather the ability to respond to the challenges posed by these threats with speed and expertise.

Security, on the other hand, is the polar opposite of insecurity. However, because of the numerous ways insecurity affects human life and existence, the concept of insecurity has traditionally been associated with various interpretations. the various ways which it affects individuals. To name a few, insecurity is defined by the following words: lack of safety; danger; hazard; uncertainty; lack of confidence; doubtful; inadequately guarded or protected; lacking stability; troubled; lack of protection; and unsafe. Different people have used each of these to define the concept of insecurity. These various descriptors, however, all refer to a state of vulnerability to harm and loss of life, property, or livelihood. Beland (2005) defined insecurity as “a state of fear or anxiety caused by a real or perceived lack of protection.” It refers to a lack of or insufficient freedom from danger. This definition reflects the most visible form of insecurity, physical insecurity, and it feeds into

Many other types of insecurity exist, such as economic and social security.

This paper is primarily concerned with two points of view. These are (1) insecurity as the state of being open or subject to danger or the threat of danger, where danger is the condition of being vulnerable to harm or injury, and (2) insecurity as the state of being exposed to risk or anxiety, where anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotion felt in anticipation of some misfortune. A key point implied by these definitions of insecurity is that those affected by it are not only uncertain or unaware of what will happen, but they are also unable to stop it or protect themselves when it occurs. We hold this viewpoint.

would describe insecurity in this paper as: ‘not knowing, a lack of control, and inability to take defensive action against forces that portend harm or danger to an individual or group, or what make them vunerable’. ‘Vunerability’ refers to an unknown situation that we cannot face or anticipate. It is also something we may be aware of but are unable to confront.

2. Nigerian Security Threats

Understanding the causes of insecurity, as well as the sources of social disorder and instability, should be a key starting point in addressing it. As Andrew and Kennedy (2003) pointed out, distinguishing between different causes is necessary because each may necessitate a different treatment. Furthermore, it is to provide a holistic view to the suggestion or recommendations of solutions. However, policymakers are often unwilling to isolate and clarify specific causes. They prefer broad statements, recognizing that the causes of insecurity are intertwined and contribute to one another. The sources of insecurity in Nigeria, like in many other societies, have been traced to a variety of factors and explained by various people. These variables have been classified or categorized as external and internal variables. In addition to the external-internal dichotomy, sources of insecurity have been classified as remote, proximate, or immediate. In Nigeria, the problem is not so much one of external insecurity as it is one of internal insecurity. As a result, the focus of this paper is on is based on internal sources. We recognize that the presence of external forces has enhanced and strengthened some internal factors, but there is no doubt that if the internal situations did not exist, the external forces would be unable to infiltrate. Using the dichotomy of remote and immediate factors, we present the internal causes of insecurity in Nigeria.


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