Using the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH) as a case study, this study investigated the birth pattern in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Data on 200 neonates from the hospital were collected. The study looked at the effect of various factors on neonatal birth weight, including the mother’s age, parity, mother’s height, gestation period, and mother’s weight at gestation. A regression model was also estimated and forecasted. According to the study, the gestation period has a positive linear relationship with the birth weight, with a correlation value of 0.434 between the two variables. The birth weight of a child was also found to be dependent on the mother’s weight during gestation. In addition, the forecast generated showed that increasing a child’s gestational period causes an increase in birth weight, and the same is true for maternal weight. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the government try to raise awareness among Nigerians, particularly expectant mothers, to visit maternity homes more frequently for pre-natal and ante-natal care.




The first World Health Assembly established an international definition of prematurity as a birth weight of 2.5 kilograms or less in 1948 (UN (2004)). However, it was discovered that the use of this standard in developing countries resulted in an unusually high proportion of ‘premature’ babies, the majority of whom were not born prematurely ( ,2004). In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study on eighteen different countries at various stages of development. Based on their birth weight and gestational age, babies were classified into three major groups: Small for gestational age, age appropriate, and age large. Low birth weight was then defined as babies weighing less than 2.5kg within 24 hours of birth. This group of infants

They can be small for their age or large for their age, and they are usually at high risk of dying in their first twenty-eight days of life due to factors such as hypoglycemia, sepsis, respiratory distress, prematurity, and so on. In Nigeria, neonatal death (the death of an infant within the first twenty-eight days of life) accounts for approximately 25% of total infant mortality, with prematurity and low birth weight being the primary causes of these high neonatal deaths (Grange, 2006).

One of the seven major goals for the current decade of the United Nations’ “A World Fit for Children” program is to reduce the proportion of infants with low birth weight by at least one-third. Furthermore, nutritional deprivation — the primary cause of low birth weight — is increasing.

a significant impediment to the achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals. Monitoring progress in reducing low birth weight is thus a top priority for the UN system, as well as for national governments and the international nutrition community.

Although the significance and interpretation of low birth weight has recently been debated, most experts agree that birth weight is an indicator of a newborn’s chances of survival, growth, long-term health, and psychosocial development. Babies born with low birth weights as a result of malnutrition face a significantly increased risk of death during their first months and years of life (Bale,2003, UN, 2000, Allen & Gillespie, 2001). Evidence also suggests that those children who survive are more likely to suffer from

They will face health issues throughout their lives, including impaired cognitive development, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in adulthood (, 2004, Barker, 2003). Low birth weight is caused primarily by poor maternal health and nutrition in developing countries. A number of socioeconomic, medical, and psychosocial factors have been identified as risk factors for low birth weight, but prevention programs aimed primarily at high-risk subgroups have been largely ineffective.

Furthermore, diseases that are common in many developing countries, such as diarrhoea, malaria, and respiratory infections, can significantly impair foetal growth when women become infected during pregnancy (Bale, UN 2000). Low birth weight is a significant contributor to overall infant mortality in Nigeria, as it is in many developing countries.

Consider the current high neonatal mortality rate.

This study, on the other hand, seeks to examine the relationship between birth weight and some factors that may influence it, such as parity, maternal height, maternal age, gestation period, and gestation weight, using the Chi-Square test of independence and regression analysis to see if any statistical relationships exist among the variables in question.


The current study will be conducted solely to assess the impact of:

i. Birth weight based on maternal age

ii. Effect of Birth Weight on Parity

iii. Birth weight based on gestational age

iv. Effect of birth weight on maternal weight

v. The Effect of Maternal Height on Birth Weight

vi. Finally, from the aforementioned factors, estimate a model capable of predicting an infant’s birth weight.


This study investigates the relationship between a child’s birth weight and some factors that may influence it; thus, it will be useful to medical practitioners, maternity specialists, and potential parents. It will also be very useful to future researchers who want to investigate issues concerning a child’s birth weight.


Previously, the prevalence of low birth weight in Nigeria was estimated to be 16%, 9%, and 12%. (UNICEF 2001, 2003). Every day, Nigeria loses approximately 2,300 children under the age of five. This could be related to the country’s high rate of low birth weight, making it the world’s second largest contributor to under-five mortality (UNICEF, 2008).

As a result, the significance of this study cannot be overstated; this research paper seeks to investigate some factors that may affect birth weight from a statistical standpoint.

This study, however, is limited to information obtained from the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital in Gwagwalada, Abuja.


Neonates are infants who are less than a month old and have been born within the last twenty-eight (28) days.
Birth Weight: A baby’s body weight at birth or shortly after birth.
Gestation Period: the period during which the foetus develops in the womb, beginning with fertilization and ending with birth.
Preterm birth is the birth of a baby who is less than 37 weeks pregnant.
Posterm pregnancy: A pregnancy that lasts 42 weeks or more.
Premature birth occurs when a baby is born before his or her developing organs are mature enough to allow normal postnatal survival.
Mortality is the state of being mortal or vulnerable to birth.
Parity: This is the state of having given birth. offspring or the number of births a female has had.
Morbidity is defined as the frequency with which a person becomes ill.



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