In this study, the mechanical and morphological properties of virgin polypropylene (PP), polypropylene/calcium carbonate (PP/CaCO3), and polypropylene/cashew nut shell powder (PP/CNSP) are reported. The composite material was made by compression molding technology. Different compositions (10/90, 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20) improve mechanical properties, water absorption, structural properties and morphology. characterized in terms of spatial arrangement.

A comparative study of the mechanical properties of virgin polypropylene (PP), polypropylene/calcium carbonate (PP/CaCO3) and polypropylene/cashew nut shell powder (PP/CNSP) was conducted. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, hardness behavior and impact strength of both PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP composites increased with increasing fill weight content (10-50 g). Did. The 50/40 PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP samples were found to have the highest tensile strength compared to the other samples.

These samples can support loads of 1075 N and 468 N with extensions of 4.44 mm and 6.12 mm, respectively. A decrease in mechanical properties was observed with the sequential addition of both fillers, with significantly lower mechanical properties at filler weights (70 g and 80 g). g).

The surface sorption properties of calcium carbonate and cashew nut shell powders were investigated and 20/80 for PP/CNSP (100%) was found to be the highest percentage. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that both 60/40 PP/CaCO3, PP/CNSP and 50/50 PP/CaCO3, PP/CNSP were completely compatible with no large separated phases. rice field. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the incorporation of the two fillers into pure polypropylene lowered the crystallinity of the polypropylene, and the crystallinity decreased with increasing filler loading.

chapter One


1.1 Research background

Particle Reinforced Plastic Composites (PRPCs) are composites to which fillers (individual particles) have been added to modify or enhance the properties of the matrix and/or to replace some of the matrix volume with cheaper materials. is. Common uses of PRPC include building materials, packaging, car tires, and pharmaceuticals. Determining the effective properties of composites is an important issue in many engineering applications (Van, 2003 and Love, 2004).

These properties are influenced by the size, shape, properties and spatial distribution of the reinforcement (Liu, 1995 and Lee, 1998). With a few exceptions, modification of organic polymers by additive incorporation results in multiphase systems with additives embedded in a continuous polymer matrix. The resulting blend features a unique microstructure that is responsible for its properties. Polymer composites are mixtures of polymers and certain forms of inorganic or organic additives. Therefore, they consist of two or more components and two or more phases. In addition to polymer composites, other important classes of modified polymer systems include polymer-polymer blends and polymer types. Mixed methods have always been used. The mixing principle is designed to achieve property averaging. A mixture is therefore a physical mixture of two or more substances that do not have chemical bonds (Mamza, 2011).

Among the various studies carried out on particle-filled PP, Maiti and Mahapatro (1992 and 2011) on the tensile and impact behavior of nickel powder-filled PP and CaCO3-filled PP composites deserves mention. Addition of nickel powder has been found to decrease tensile modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break with increasing filler. The addition of CaCO3 increased the tensile modulus, but the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased with increasing filler content. The Izod impact strength of the composites in the first application of filler filling increased up to a significant filler level, above which the values ​​decreased slightly.

Research topic
Bulking agent cashew nut shell powder (CNSP) is underused in compound formulations, especially in northern Nigeria, as it is considered a waste product. So we need to transform this waste into wealth, but this transformation works as environmental waste management.

goal and goal
The main objective of this study was to determine the impact strength of cashew nut shell powder and calcium carbonate used as fillers in polypropylene.

The specific objectives of this research are to:

Sample collection and sample preparation at the outlet center.
Measurement and characterization of cashew nut shell powder using X-ray diffraction analysis.
Mechanical tests such as hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength and sorption tests are performed on the manufactured samples.
Microstructural determination of processed samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). justification
Cashew nut shell powder as he one of the fillers used in this study can reduce the manufacturing cost of the item compared to commercially available fillers. By paying people to provide researchers, you can create local employment opportunities. Using cashew nut shell powder as a filler can help reduce the pollution caused by the shell as it is biodegradable and can spoil and become a pollutant to society.

scope of research
For preparation and characterization of CNSP fillers
For filling cashew nut shell powder into polypropylene
Filling polypropylene with calcium carbonate
To carry out mechanical tests on manufactured composites. B. Hardness, Tensile Strength, Elongation at Break, Sorption Test, and Impact Strength
Impact strength comparison between cashew nut shell powder and calcium carbonate-filled polypropylene.


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