1.1 Background Of The Study

Modern educators, philosophers, and researchers have emphasized rational thought and action in relation to altruism because altruism is a type of rational thought and action. Krebs (1998) defined altruism as a psychological process based on the recognition of an individual’s trueness and loyalty, as well as their ability to wholeness or togetherness as human beings. He also mentioned basic altruistic requirements such as morality, principles, and rationality in desire and action. Furthermore, Krebs (1998) demonstrated that while desire and motivation are important factors in altruism, desire is not the only source of motivation. Other internal elements, aside from desire and motivation, activate the anticipation of other people’s happiness and well-being. Furthermore, altruism is a “nearly universal” trait.

In all human civilizations, virtue has been a central tenet of most significant religious, social reformer, and revolutionary leader movements (Senapati, 2016).” Genuine altruism is a proven fact. According to Krueger (2013), this essential characteristic of assisting others who are in need is described in a variety of ways, including socioemotional conduct, moral commitment, and helping out. People who are eager to “go beyond of” in response to the needs of others enrich social groups, community groups, organizations, universities, and households.

Thus, human altruism is distinguished by a high level of prosociality, and physiological kinship appears to be essential for altruistic behavior (Batson, 1991). Voluntary assistance motivated primarily by compassion for others is defined as altruistic behavior.

other people’s needs and welfare, and is frequently motivated by empathy as well as internalized principles and norms associated with assisting others (Bierhoff, 1991). Similarly, altruism among various social groups is characterized by prosocial behavior demonstrated within the society through togetherness, collaboration, sharing, and offering support. The school system can make a significant and active contribution to enhancing prosocial abilities and motivation by developing structured prosocial educational programs. Integrated school activities should be encouraged in order to foster leadership and, as a result, increase altruism among children.

1.2 Problem Description

Altruism has been defined in various ways by psychologists and other scholars from various fields of study, but they all agree that it is a feature of human nature. Individual egotism can motivate altruistic behavior.

a “pure” compassionate willingness to assist another person without regard for personal gain (Batson, 1991). Positive attitudes and dispositions such as optimism, helpful attitude, compassion, and confidence, which are traits of altruism, have a large influence on the social well-being, interaction, and sense of belonging of the individuals involved, according to recent research.

As a result, it becomes ideal to instill such behavior in children. This is necessary because the behaviors of adolescents are characterized by covert and overt hostility, as well as intentional aggression toward others (Oliner, 2002). According to Sarak (2020), adolescents in Nigerian secondary schools engage in anti-social behavior that causes physical, psychological, or emotional harm to others. Assaulting others, being cruel to others, he claims

Secondary school students have a variety of behavioral imbalances. In other words, students care little or nothing about anyone except their peers (to some certain extent). As adolescents progress to adulthood, the dangers of this behavioral imbalance become more apparent. Notably, in order to truly make the world a better place, every individual must reach out to the interests and needs of others, with or without personal gain. In light of the foregoing, it is important to instill in children the importance of altruism and to train them to become better altruists through the teaching of altruistic behavior among adolescents.

1.3 The Study’s Objective

The overall goal of this research is

to assess the teaching of altruistic behavior to adolescent students. The study’s specific goal is

1. Identify the essential components of altruism.

2. Determine whether teaching altruism will improve adolescents’ socialization skills.

3. Determine whether teaching altruism will have a positive impact on students’ inhumane behaviors.

4. Determine whether altruism exercises are conducted in Nigerian secondary schools.

1.4 Research Issue

The following questions will guide the research:

1. What are the components of altruism behaviour?

2. Will the teaching of altruism enhance the socialization skill of adolescents?

3. Will the teaching of altruism have a positive effect on the inhumane behaviours of students?

4. Are altruism exercises performed in Nigerian secondary schools?


1.5 Significance Of the study

The study’s findings will be extremely useful to stakeholders in Nigeria’s secondary schools. According to the study, they will see the need to establish altruism exercises in secondary schools in order to adjust students’ inhumane dispositions over time. Additionally, it will be used as a literature review by subsequent researchers. This means that other students who decide to conduct research in this area will be able to use this study as available literature for critical review. Invariably, the study’s findings add significantly to the body of academic knowledge about teaching altruistic behavior to adolescent students.

1.6 The Study’s Scope

In general, the research focuses on teaching altruistic behavior.

Among adolescents. The study will also look into identifying the key components of altruism, determining whether teaching altruism will improve adolescents’ socialization skills, and whether teaching altruism will have a positive effect on students’ inhumane behavior. The study will also determine whether altruism exercises are carried out in Nigerian secondary schools. As a result, the study will be conducted in a few selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State.

1.7. The Study’s Limitations

The researcher encountered some constraints while conducting this study, including time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the respondents’ attitudes.

There was also the issue of researcher bias. In this case, the researcher may have had some biases.

The manner in which the data was gathered, the types of people interviewed or sampled, and the subsequent interpretation of the data gathered have all been reflected. The possibility of all of this influencing the findings and conclusions cannot be overstated.

1.8 Terms Definition

Altruism is the principle or practice of caring for or devoting oneself to the welfare of others. The investigator used the “Altruism scale” developed by S. N. Rai and Sanwat Singh and adapted by them to assess the level of altruism in the current study. The higher the score on the scale, the greater the level of altruism.

Adolescence: Adolescents are those who are between the ages of 12 and 18. In this study, the researcher will include students from

Class nine and ten are considered adolescent and belong to this age group.

Altruism Exercise: In the current study, altruism exercise is operationally defined as the exercises or activities that inspire an adolescent’s altruistic behavior. The current study’s altruism exercise is an altruistic journey.


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