THE EFFECT OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF KOLA NITIDA BARK ON LIVER FUNCTION TEST

abstract

Kola bark extract has been used extensively in traditional medicine for thousands of years; it enhances liver functions and protects against metabolic rats fed a high-fat diet. The hepatoprotective effects of Kola bark extract meal treatment were studied in the current research on high fat-fed wistar rats. Four groups of healthy adult male wistar rats were created. Rats in Group I were given a standard laboratory diet (groups matched) (20g/rat/day), while those in Group II were given a high-fat diet alone (3.6g/rat/day), those in Group III were given a combination of 70% high-fat food and 30% kola bark meal (9.8g/rat/day), and those in Group V were given a high-fat diet along with Lipitor (Atovastatin) (10mg/rat/day). At the conclusion of the experiment, the rats were experimentation period of two weeks. The liver tissue and serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, and total protein in the high fat-fed rat were markedly elevated. While the treatment with kola bark husk meal significantly increased the levels of all parameters in the direction of normalization. The findings point to a strong hepatoprotective effect of Kola bark meal in high fat-fed rats. The Kola bark meal treatment was more and related to the outcome of Lipitor as well as to the normal level, according to the performance in both Kola bark meal and Lipitor treatment on high fat fed rats in regards to hepatoprotective role.

number of tables

Test for Cholesterol in Table 1 (TC)

Table 2: Triglyceride test (TG)

Table 3: Qualitative Analysis: Sample Phytochemical Makeup

Table 4: Quantitative Phytochemistry Qualitative Analysis

Liver Function Table 5 Rats were fed various samples during tests.

TEXT OF THE CHAPTER

CHAPITER 1

One.0 Introduction

APARTMENT TWO

Literature review 2.0

2.1 Kola’s historical context

2.1.2 Methods for expanding kola production investment opportunities

2.2 Lipid synthesis

2.2.1 Definition and classification of lipids and lipoproteins

Plasma lipoproteins, 2.2.2

Cholesterol metabolism 2.3.4

Liver X receptor 2.3.0

2.3.1 Liver x receptors as sensors for cholesterol

2.3.2 Bile acid synthesis, metabolism, and excretion and liver X receptor

2.3.3 Biosynthesis of LXR and cholesterol

LXR and cholesterol uptake, 2.3.4

intestinal cholesterol absorption and 2.3.5 LXR

LXR as potential therapeutic targets

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The liver is the body’s largest and most intricate internal organ. Through its many and varied functions, it is vital to the upkeep of the internal environment. The liver plays a role in many essential processes, including metabolism, secretion, and storage. Hepatocytes are inflamed and damaged as a result of hepatitis or an inflammatory disorder. One of the most common diseases in the world is hepatitis. According to reports, 18,000 people per year pass away from viral hepatitis-induced liver cirrhosis [L] Obesity causes ectopic fat storage, especially in the liver, which results in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition marked by varying degrees of liver damage that progresses from steatosis to tratohepatitis, fibrosis, and necrosis. Due to its strong connection to IR

(Iron resistance). NAFLD and obesity are both considered to be hepatic manifestations of the metabolite [3] syndrome. Toxic substances can be greatly detoxicated by the liver.

The traditional superfood in every country is kola pod. Kola pod Husk meal is the residue left over after the kola pod has been ground and filtered. It is a fantastic source of fiber (16.74%), crude protein (9.98%), moderate NFE (42.391), and metabolizable energy (2497 kcal/kg), with a moderately high ash content. (13.26%). compared to the figures provided by Oluokun (1999); (Hamzat and Babatunde, 2001). These variations and the shelf life of the test ingredient prior to analysis could be the causes of these differences. However, the crude protein content of kola husk meal (KPHM) compared favorably to other feed ingredients like Sorghum is one of the most significant foods for medical treatment worldwide, and its high fiber content confirms this. The husk of the kola pod provides some necessary components for doth drying. In conventional medicine, the pod bark is combined with other ingredients to lessen labor pains. Bark is used to treat swellings and recently opened wounds. The wood is used in local carvings, coachwork, and boatbuilding, and the roots make excellent chewing sticks for brushing teeth. Triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), cholesterol esters (CE), free cholesterol (FC), and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are some of the different types of fats found in human plasma and are referred to as lipids. Although each lipid in our bodies has a unique function, they all

Esters of long chain fatty acids are found in the structures of all of them, with the exception of free cholesterol (FC). Because of their non-polar structures, lipids are insoluble in plasma; as a result, they require carriers that are soluble in both polar and non-polar environments. Lipoprotein, a molecule that contains both protein (in the form of apolipoprotein) and lipids, is used to package and transport lipids.

For their ability to lower cholesterol, statins (including Lipitor) are a class of medications that are frequently prescribed to treat atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. These medications prevent the enzyme HMG-COA reductase from functioning. The enzyme that limits how quickly cholesterol is made; it turns HMG.CoA into mevalonate. Mevalonate is a precursor for the synthesis of non-steroid isoprenoids like coenzyme Q in addition to cholesterol. Depletion

results in the so-called plelotropic effects of statins, which are independent of cholesterol, of these isoprenoids.

decreasing impact.

The anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of these pletrotropic effects. Statins may also be used as a treatment for diseases of the central nervous system and ocular structures, particularly the retina, due to data from experimental and observational studies that showed they have neuroprotective effects (schemer, 2007). Hepatic diseases are commonly treated with statins, such as atorvastatin. They are frequently used as cholesterol-lowering medications to lower coronary artery disease mortality and mobility. Additionally, it affects inflammatory conditions like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

However, there are few studies on the impact of kola husk meal treatment on In this regard, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of kola pod meal on high-fat fed rats related to different hepatoprotective effect by comparing Lipitor Treatment.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Kola’s Origin

The precious stones Kola, a member of the sterculiaceae family (Russel, 1955), is indigenous to tropical Africa and has its greatest diversity in west Africa’s forest areas. Kola is perhaps second only to palm oil in importance among indigenous cash crops. In West Africa, approximately 40 kola species have been described. However, in Nigeria, the most important kola species are kola acuminate and kola nitida.

(Quarcoo,1973;(Daramola,1978) Kola acuminate and Kola nitida are important economic crops in West and Central Africa, the Caribbean islands, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. (Eijnatten,1969);( Oladokun, 1985). ( Oladokun, 1985). Cola nitida cultivation in Nigeria began in the nineteenth century. The nitidagoro)was observed growing abundantly in the otta bush.

Its cultivation was first noted in Egba Division in 1902, and in Labochi and Envious in 1901. Kola nitida cultivation presumably spread from Agege to the forest areas, first along the railway line into Abeokuta, Ibadan, and Offa, replacing the local kola acuminata and later along streams and river banks into the Guinea savannah and, at present, south and eastern state (Eijnatte, 1969).

Kola nuts have been an important item of internal trade in Nigeria and other parts of Africa for hundreds of years (Nzekwu, 1961). Many countries traded it in West Africa and along the Trans-Saharan trade routes (Egbe and Sobamiwa, 1989).

Kola nut is used as a masticatory stimulant by some people.

Africans and has numerous uses in social, religious, ritual, and ceremonial functions by the natives of Africa’s forest region. It is used during ceremonies related to marriage, child naming, chief installation, funeral, and sacrifices made to the various gods of Africa Mythology (Nzekwu, 1967) ;(Daramola, 1978) ; (Opeke, 1992). It is also in high demand in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in the production of soft drinks, wines, and candles (Beattie, 1970; Ogutuga, 1975). Its applications have inevitably resulted in a high demand that exceeds its supply (Oladokun, 1985).

Kola nut has been abused by CRIN researchers to create a new brand of chocolate and wine (Kola chocolate and kola wine) (famuyima, 1987). Eka (1971) also mentioned the possibility.

Non-alcoholic beverages can be made with pulverized kola nuts.

Kola pod husk has also been used in the manufacture of liquid soap. The most recent and notable advancement in kola by-product utilization is the use of kola pod husk to replace up to 60% of the maize used in fermentation.

Yahayaet al, 2001; Hamzat, 2001; Hamzat and Babatunde, 2001; Hamzat and Longe, 2002; Hamzatet al, 2000 ( Olubamimaet al, 2002). According to Nzekwu (1961), kola can also be used for the following purposes: (1) It provides some essential materials for doth dying. (2) When combined with other ingredients, the pod bark is used in traditional medicine to induce labor pains. (3) The bark is applied to swellings and fresh wounds. Research

The cocoa research institute of Nigeria (CRIN), which has the mandate in Nigeria for research into production and extension aspects of cocoa, kola, coffee, cashew, and tea, is working on improving kola productivity.

2.1 Methods for increasing investment opportunities in kola production.

1. The first step is to improve the country’s kola nut production quality and quantity. This can be accomplished in two ways.

2. Rehabilitation of kola orchards: cutting down unproductive trees and replacing them with proven materials can result in more efficient land utilization.

 

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