The Global Revolution In Military Affairs And Combat Effectiveness: Challenges And Prospects For The Nigerian Armed Forces


Chapiter 1




1.1 The Study’s Background


Over the past century, advances in weaponry technology have been made. Deliveries of weapons can now be made with a level of precision never before possible, while surveillance and reconnaissance devices can offer incredibly precise information about hostile forces, buildings, and locations. This information can be quickly utilized by combining data analysis and distribution methods. The majority of military analysts concur that in order to fully take advantage of the advancements in military technology, operational ideas must be fundamentally reevaluated and revised. This Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is the result of technology advancements and changes to operational paradigms.1


RMA represents a significant shift in the character of combat brought about by the creative use of modern technologies. As a result, military doctrine, operations, and organizational principles undergo significant change. It will radically change how military operations are carried out and have a character.2 For a number of causes, these revolutions have taken place frequently throughout history. The technological revolution that began with the industrial age is the most obvious reason. Some of the most prominent breakthroughs that altered how contemporary combat is conducted include the development of gunpowder, the steam engine, the submarine, the internal combustion engine, the airplane, the aircraft carrier, and the atom bomb.


These technological developments have their roots in the civil sector in some cases. Other types of RMA were prompted by societal military revolutions, such as the growth of railroads, which made it possible to transport and supply armed forces over enormous distances.4 The spectrum of combat in today’s dynamic battle zone has evolved as a result of RMA. The impact has been shown in more recent wars since World War II. Digital battle fields, cutting-edge Precision Guided Missiles (PGMs), cruise missiles, and an unparalleled air power display were all hallmarks of the Gulf War.


Technology developments have produced a worldwide setting with a largely unrestrained flow of information. As a result, there is currently a progressive transition away from traditional means of force and battle and toward unconventional ones, such as information. Command and control have been significantly impacted by the capacity to access the appropriate information at the appropriate moment. Information and communication technology (ICT) technologies are now being used as actual weapons, both literally and metaphorically.5 PGMs, sensors, fiber optics, the miniaturization of microchips, GPS, satellite technologies, and simulations are the main drivers of the contemporary RMA. All of these are ICT-related goods and elements of network-centric warfare (NCW). As a result, the suitability of the information could affect how a conflict turns out.6


Technology is advancing at an unparalleled rate. In the past, military requirements either conditioned or stimulated technological growth; in modern times, technological advancements appear to influence the strategies and tactics used in waging war.7 Therefore, it is necessary for developing nations to adapt to this wave of change and its difficulties. There are certain benefits for developing nations like Egypt, Brazil, and South Africa. They are able to meet some of the obstacles thanks to their high level of technology and robust defense industry. This is a result of the technology’s adjustment to their unique settings. Nigeria needs to consider her options due to her weak defense industrial base. One is either a part of or a victim of the enormous impact that modern technology is having on the planet.8 This is relevant if Nigeria is to be successful in modern warfare, it must become significant in the global RMA.


Nigeria may face challenges in the coming decades on the political and military fronts.10 These difficulties are brought on by Nigeria’s pivotal position in the cooperation and integration of Africa, the pursuit for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council, and regional power dynamics. The Nigerian Armed Forces should be organized in a way that would enable them to meet these challenges due to the inescapable characteristics of the environment in which they may fight in the future. The employment of the Nigerian Armed Forces would not be restricted to the West African arena alone because globalization has made the entire world into one village. Today’s global media coverage makes it simple for domestic conflicts inside one state to become international, and numerous states are swiftly drawn into them.11


The procurement of modern platforms, weapon systems, and equipment by the Nigerian Armed Forces has been few and poorly planned. As a result, some of the items in the inventory are either going out of style or have already done so. Others have deteriorated due to heavy use and insufficient upkeep. Furthermore, because the Ministry of Defence (MOD) lacks specified policies, strategies and processes for improving them are not clearly defined. The problem is made worse by the battle for resources between the defense industry and other economic sectors.


Situation Of The Problem


The development of technical facilities in the Nigerian Armed Forces is currently in an elementary stage. Therefore, the Nigerian military would confront significant difficulties if it were to observe, for instance, an information warfare attack on its ICT infrastructure. The lack of current platforms, weapons systems, and equipment as well as the absence of effective plans to solve the issue are equally concerning. Lack of resources and a weak national scientific and industrial base only make the problem worse.


Since the Nigerian Army (NA) was established in 1883, the Nigerian Armed Forces have taken part in both internal and overseas operations to carry out their constitutional duties. However, its capacity to combat has been hampered by the outdated and deteriorating condition of the fighting gear in its inventory. It would be crucial to figure out how the Nigerian Armed Forces might keep up with trends in global RMA given their role in achieving the goals of the National Defense Policy. It would be crucial to understand how the RMA can improve combat efficiency. The researcher’s interest in the study was sparked by this. In light of this, the study aims to provide answers to the following queries:


a. What exactly is an RMA?


b. What connection exists between combat effectiveness and the RMA?


What obstacles face the Nigerian Armed Forces in obtaining an RMA?


d. In order to increase the combat effectiveness of the Nigerian Armed Forces, what tactics and policies may be used to attain an RMA?

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