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The purpose of this study was to see how teaching aids affected students’ academic performance in basic science in secondary schools in Oredo LGA. The study looked at the impact of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Basic Science, if there is a difference in academic performance between students taught Basic Science with and without teaching aids, and the different types of teaching aids used in the teaching of Basic Science in Secondary Schools. The survey descriptive research design was used in this study. The survey yielded a total of 141 valid replies. Ausubel’s (1963) meaningful learning theory was used in this investigation. The findings on the benefits of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Basic Science include simple grasp of topics, increased student motivation for learning, and time savings in lesson delivery, based on the responses gathered and analyzed. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that teachers’ topic expertise had an impact on students’ understanding of social studies. The data also demonstrated that there is a difference in academic achievement between students taught Basic Science with and without teaching aids. Teachers should employ the most appropriate educational strategies, according to the report. This will facilitate pupil comprehension, hence improving academic success.




Science is the foundation upon which most modern technical breakthroughs are constructed. Today, nations all over the world, including Nigeria, are working hard to develop scientifically and technologically, as the world is getting increasingly scientific and all aspects of life are becoming increasingly dependent on science. Science education is a critical component of a country’s growth and development. A country’s economic and political strength is always measured in terms of its scientific and technological achievements (Anderson, 2002).

Basic Science, formerly known as Integrated Science, is a subject taught in primary and junior secondary schools at the lower, middle, and upper Basic Education levels. It has taken a prominent place in the school curriculum and has been designated as a core subject.

In fact, science and science-related disciplines are heavily emphasized at all levels of education, emphasizing the need of scientific thinking and application among students, with Basic Science serving as the foundation. Individuals’ lives and the scientific and technological growth of a nation are both impacted by science education (Anderson, 2002).

It is commonly known that science education is the key to a nation’s survival. It has been a necessary topic for most science-oriented courses in senior secondary schools and higher institutions, necessitating the need to adequately teach it. The Nigerian government devised a policy to encourage residents to take an interest in science education.

The Nigerian integrated science project aimed to improve science education in the country’s junior secondary schools. It defines science as the process of interpreting, manipulating, and controlling the surroundings of students. Due to the shift in educational system from 6-3-3-4 to 9-3-4, the topic is now taught in elementary and junior secondary schools (JSS) in Nigeria as part of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) implemented in 1999. The Nigerian Integrated Science Project books have been updated to include all three years of junior secondary school (Ezegbe, & Nwaubani, 2009).

Basic Science is one of the key disciplines in the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme’s junior high school. According to FRN (2013), basic education is defined as: The teaching of basic science from pre- secondary (lower basic) to junior secondary school (upper basic) levels is meant to fulfill the following aims and objectives, according to the National Policy on Education (FRN 2013): Instilling a spirit of curiosity and creativity in students through observational study of nature and the local environment; laying a solid basis for scientific innovation and critical thinking Basic Science process abilities such as observation, manipulating, classifying, communicating, inferring, hypothesis, interpreting data, and developing models are used to help children adapt to their changing environment. Explain simple and natural occurrences and offer the child with basic instruments for further educational progress using functional understanding of science concepts and principles.

Because it is an activity-oriented curriculum, the Basic Science course should begin with a comprehension of the meaning of science and how scientists work, according to the aforementioned guiding principles.

Many factors contribute to students’ poor academic performance in Basic Science in junior secondary, including the constant use of lecture teaching methods, poor laboratory facilities, poor student retention ability, and an insufficient number of learning facilities in managing large classes, among others (Iweka, 2006). Although teaching materials or instructional materials could help students learn more effectively in Basic Science, they are rarely used, despite the fact that this is a way of teaching for developing cognition.

Because of the shortage of teaching materials and the ineffective use of appropriate teaching materials, many projected learning objectives in Basic Science in upper elementary schools cannot be accomplished (Maduabum, 1995). Basic Science students performed poorly on the Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSCE). In recent years, the reports of the Basic Science chief examiners have shown a persistent drop in candidate performance in Basic Science at JSCE, 2013.

The equipment, tools, and materials that a teacher uses to illustrate, emphasize, and explain a lesson to students are referred to as teaching materials. According to Isiugo-Abanihe, Long, and Ibiene (2010), teaching materials are materials that a teacher uses or manipulates during the teaching process. These materials and equipment range from everyday items that students are familiar with and can obtain locally to sophisticated industrial products that cannot be obtained locally, such as microscopes, glass wares, tripod stands, and herbariums. Basic Science teaching necessitates the use of teaching aids, such as materials or media, to deliver effective instructions that pique and maintain learners’ interest (Leghara and Okafor, 2006). This is because when students interact with the teacher face to face through the use of appropriate teaching tools, the session is more likely to be successful. The purpose of instructional resources is to improve and supplement rather than to replace the teacher. No amount of good educational resources should be used to replace the teacher. The use of teaching aids or materials in science classes will help students develop problem-solving abilities and a positive attitude, as well as develop scientific awareness and enthusiasm, functional knowledge, and manipulative skills. When normal instructional resources are insufficient, the teacher may have to improvise. According to researchers like Kurlthau (2007), there are insufficient resources for teaching Basic Science in Nigeria’s junior secondary schools. They went on to say that if there were few resources or none at all, they were frequently in poor condition, and that the few that were in good condition were insufficient to serve those who required them.

The purpose of using teaching aids or materials in upper Basic Science is to aid in successful teaching and learning, arousing and maintaining learners’ attention, and assisting in the perception and retention of information or knowledge among our students. Kurlthau (2007) believed that using both traditional and improvised educational tools will help pupils remember newly found data. Today’s technological advancements have made it feasible to reduce the amount of time that the teacher speaks while still making the message clearer, more entertaining, and easier to understand for the learner.

As a result, the study aims to determine the impact of teaching aids on secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science.


It is impossible to overstate the relevance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Basic Science in schools. Despite numerous efforts to improve students’ low performance in Basic Science in general, the subject continues to fail, possibly due to a lack of teaching materials. Science instructors, educators, and testing organizations are concerned about the diminishing rate of performance of upper Basic Science pupils Nwagbo (1999). The performance of students in Basic Science in junior high school certificate examinations has shown that as enrolment grows, the number of passes decreases, indicating that something needs to be done to enhance performance. In a similar vein, Nwosu (2003) identified other issues, including a lack of practical skills and poor topic knowledge. Many teachers believe that using educational materials is difficult, time-consuming, and costly. Poor teaching methods and wrong use of teaching materials, according to Nnachi (2007), are the root causes of poor performance. Many students struggle with science topics and courses, according to Nnachi (2007). This was due to the frequent usage of the lecture approach without the use of teaching materials. According to the chief examination report (2013) of junior high school certificate examinations, the lack of qualified and incompetent science teachers, the use of only lecture methods of instruction, and inability to use teaching materials, among other factors, are contributing to the decline of the junior high school certificate examinations.

Students’ motivation to learn has been lowered as a result of teachers’ failure to utilise teaching resources. As a result, the ongoing underperformance and retention ability in Basic science will continue unless the concerns of poor use of instructional materials are addressed.

In light of the foregoing, the purpose of this study will be to determine the impact of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in basic science in secondary schools in Oredo LGA.


The overall goal of this research is to find out how teaching aids affect student academic performance in basic science in secondary schools in Oredo LGA. The study’s objectives were to:

  1. Determine the impact of instructional aids on Basic Science students’ academic achievement.
  2. Determine whether there is a difference in academic performance between students taught Basic Science with and without instructional aids.
  3. Examine the various teaching tools utilized in the secondary school teaching of basic science.


This study will address the following research questions:

  1. What impact do instructional aids have on students’ academic achievement in Basic Science?
  2. Is there a difference in academic achievement between students taught Basic Science with and without instructional aids?
  3. What are the different sorts of teaching aids utilized in secondary school science classes?


The study’s conclusions will improve the quality of basic science education in the following ways:

It will assist basic science teachers in understanding and developing a favorable attitude toward the use of instructional resources in the teaching-learning process in all disciplines in big class sizes.

Students in Basic Science: It will provide opportunities and training for students to engage effectively and encourage individual students to achieve their best results in Basic Science. It is intended that once students have had experience studying through enriched improvised and standard teaching resources, they will have a good attitude toward Basic science. It will also assist in pushing children to be curious about what they are learning through materials.

Policymakers: The study will inform policymakers on the importance and relevance of employing teaching resources in the teaching-learning process, so they can assist in making them available to teachers and enforcing their usage in the classroom.

Teachers as Curriculum Implementers: The study will encourage curriculum planners to include and enforce the usage of teaching materials by teachers as curriculum implementers.

Administrators: The project will provide data on educational practice in the real world. This result can be utilized as a starting point for Science Education to develop new instructional strategies.

Professional organizations, such as the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), can hold seminars, workshops, and research to aid in the cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval cheval

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