BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Rituals are found in every known human society. They encompass not only organized religions’ and cults’ worship rites and sacraments, but also rites of passage, atonement and purification rites, oaths of allegiance, dedication ceremonies, coronations and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, and a variety of other ritualistic events. African culture and religion are built on a foundation of rituals. Religion is an important aspect of African traditional life, and it forms the foundation of the majority of the themes and plotlines in older films (Dipio, 2007). Ritual faith and religion are so profoundly interwoven in practically all socio-religious rites in African traditional worship. It strengthens their sense of self-identity as a people and provides insights into their cosmological framework and mental patterns. Because Africans believe that God is a higher spiritual force involved in their community and individual affairs, they communicate with him through other gods and minor deities such as Sango, the thunder god; Ogun, the iron god; Ala, the earth goddess; Ajoku, the yam god; Osun, the river goddess, and others. On a more personal level, however, there is always a personal or family deity who is believed to protect individuals and families from harm and bring them good fortune. This perspective is widely depicted in the majority of Nollywood films, particularly in ceremonies, and symbolically portrays the sense of faith in God and the gods, not only in the traditional context, but also in contemporary African society. Traditional African religion admits the reality of witchcraft, magic, and sorcery, as well as holy specialists and other spiritual forces, and includes beliefs in a supreme God, other gods, ancestors, communal rites, and personal rituals (Alawode and Fatonji, 2013). “Ritual as a religious is a ceremony that involves communication with certain external forces,” according to Adagbada (2014). It expresses a belief or set of beliefs in a serious and grave manner.” Ritual, according to Alawode and Fatonji (2013), is a space where people reconcile short-term pragmatic goals with a culture’s longer-term mythological ideals, where they can replace personal estrangement with affirmation of personal identity.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Every society in the world faces unique difficulties and challenges. Nigeria is no different. As a developing country, it has its own set of social, political, economic, and cultural issues that have had a significant impact on the population’s well-being. Youth unemployment and a rising tide of crime are two such issues plaguing the country, both of which have major repercussions for national growth.
Nigeria has a population of 46.4 million youth, primarily between the ages of 15 and 39 (National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Abuja, 2017). Because the number of unemployed graduates and youngsters is increasing, the government should give jobs and other incentives. Unfortunately, unemployment in Nigeria, particularly among the youth, has been on the rise since the mid-1980s, when the economy began to falter. Although unemployment is a worldwide problem, the rate varies by country and depends on the size and capacity of the economy to offer jobs for its population.
Despite the abundance of human and natural resources in the country, Nigeria’s unemployment rate has continued to rise. In Nigeria, chronic youth unemployment is evident. Thousands of graduates are created each year, but the majority of them are unemployed. Youth hawkers clutter Nigerian streets who would otherwise have found gainful job in some business (Okafor, 2011). The enormous number of unemployed youngsters has the potential to undermine democratic practice by posing a severe threat if they are used by the political class for illicit and criminal activities (Okafor, 2011). According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2009), between 2000 and 2011, Nigeria’s national unemployment rate decreased from 31.1 percent in 2000 to 11-9% in 2005. In 2011, it climbed to 23.9 percent, then 29.5 percent in 2012. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, the jobless rate will grow above 35% in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In 2012, the average young unemployment rate in Nigeria was 46.5 percent, according to the same figures (BLG, 2012). Many people attribute the high prevalence of crime in Nigeria today on unemployment, particularly among the youth. Unemployed teenagers are also more likely to be perpetrators as well as victims of crime and violence, according to research findings (Okafor, 2011). Increased violence, such as ritualism, is a result of the rising divide between the rich and the poor. Because of the effects of unemployment, today’s youths desire to get rich as soon as possible, resorting to kidnapping.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of this research is to see how unemployment affects youth involvement in kidnapping. Other study aims include:
i. To find out how common kidnapping is among teenagers.
ii. To identify the elements that contribute to Nigeria’s high unemployment rate.
iii. To see if unemployment raises the rate of kidnapping among young people.
The validity of the following hypotheses will be examined in this study:
Kidnapping is uncommon in Nigeria, according to Ho1.
Ha1: Kidnapping is a common occurrence in Nigeria.
Ho2: Youth involvement in abduction is not influenced by unemployment.
Ha2: Youth engagement in abduction is influenced by unemployment.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study cannot be overstated, as it reveals the relationship between unemployment and young involvement in abduction, as well as the prevalence of youth involvement in kidnapping and the reasons that contribute to Nigeria’s high unemployment rate. As a result, the findings will surely alert federal, state, and local governments to the necessity to ensure adequate establishment of avenues to reduce unemployment rates.
And the potential consequences of ignoring them.
As a result, it is believed that one of the most important outcomes of this study would be to push the government to develop policies that will effectively stop the alarming rise in unemployment rates.
Finally, this research will add to the body of knowledge on the subject under consideration, providing as a resource for students and academics who may be conducting additional research on related themes.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The impact of unemployment on youth involvement in kidnapping will be the subject of this research. This research will look into the prevalence of youth involvement in abduction, as well as the variables that contribute to Nigeria’s high unemployment rate and if unemployment boosts the rate of youth involvement in kidnapping.
Residents of the Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State will be enrolled in this study’s survey.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research will focus on the impact of unemployment on young people’s involvement in kidnapping. This research will focus on evaluating the prevalence of youth engagement in abduction, identifying the factors that contribute to Nigeria’s high unemployment rate, and determining if unemployment enhances the rate of youth involvement in kidnapping.
This study will be limited to the Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State, and its findings will not be applicable elsewhere until more research is conducted.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Unemployment: This is a term that refers to those who are employable and actively looking for work but can’t find one.
Youth: Youth refers to the period of one’s life while one is young, which is typically defined as the period between childhood and adulthood. It can also be characterized as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, enthusiasm, and other characteristics of a youthful person.”
Kidnapping is the act of kidnapping and holding someone hostage.