This research looks at the language of Christian religion, with a focus on the Roman Catholic Church and Pentecostal denominations. The first chapter contains an introduction to the study, the goal of the work, its scope and limitations, as well as a brief history of Christian religion and the two denominations. The second chapter is a brief review of the related literature. The third chapter discusses the lexical, grammatical, metaphorical, typographical, and graphological characteristics of Christian religious language. The fourth chapter is an in-depth examination of the two denominations’ sermons, rituals, liturgies, and sacred texts. The final chapter contains a comparative summary analysis of the two denominations, as well as a brief conclusion and recommendation.



Language’s primary goal is communication, but how language communicates appears to be linked to individual experiences in terms of linguistic attitude, cultural influences, and personal perception. A register is a term used to describe variations in language based on use. Thorne, for example, claims that lawyers keep a legal register, doctors keep a medical register, and priests keep a religious register ( 95).

The spoken and written forms of the language of the Roman Catholic Church and the selected Pentecostal denominations will be examined to examine the language of Christian religion. The Christian religion is the most widespread of the world’s religions. In the 1990s, its total membership topped 1.9 billion people (Probert Microsoft Encarta). There are other belief systems.

Platonism, Marxism, Freudianism, and Democracy are examples of values. In many ways, Christianity is only understandable to those who share its benefits and strive to live by its values.

Wilken notes that Jerusalem was the center of Christian religion until it was destroyed by Roman armies in A.D. 70. Christianity spread from there to other cities and towns in Palestine and beyond. Its popularity at first was widespread, though it was not limited to Judaism’s adherents, to whom it was presented as a new but not entirely new religion (820).

According to Leith, Christian religion has always had a dual relationship with Jewish faith, a relationship of continuity while also fulfilling antithesis.

affirmation. The forced conversion of Jews during the Middle Ages, as well as the history of anti-Semitic condemnations of both by church leaders, show that the antithesis can easily overshadow affirmation. However, the tragic loss of continuity with Judaism was never complete (450).

Above all, the presence of so many elements of Judaism in the Christian Bible has served to remind Christians that the Lord whom they worshiped was Himself a Jew, and that the New Testament does not stand alone but is an appendix to the Old Testament. The shift in membership was a significant contributor to Christianity’s alienation from its Jewish roots. At the same time, Christians of Gentile origin began to outnumber Christians of Jewish origin.

Christians who are Jewish. Clearly, Apostle Paul’s work had an impact. He was born a Jew and was deeply involved in Judaism’s destiny, but after his conversion, he believed that he was a “chosen instrument” to bring the message of Christ to Gentiles. He wrote his epistle to several early Christian congregations, and many of his ideas are at the heart of Christian religion (453).

According to Manners, the Christian religion is easier to describe historically than it is to define logically. Such a description does provide some insight into the Christian religion’s ongoing practices and essential characteristics. One such element is the centrality of Jesus Christ’s person. This is a characteristic shared by all. Christian belief and practice have evolved over time. Jesus Christ died so that his followers could share in the Father’s life in heaven and become God’s children. His cruxfiction, death, and resurrection, to which the early Christians referred when they spoke of him as the one who had reconciled humanity to God, transformed the cross into the central focus of Christian faith and devotion. It is also the primary symbol of God the Father’s saving love (520).


The Greek word Ka0aukoc (katholikos), from which catholic is derived, means “universal”. In the early second century, it was first used to describe the Christian church. According to Norman, the Western Church has been known as ‘Catholic,’ while the Eastern Church has been known as ‘Orthodox,’ since the East-West schism of 1054. Following the 16th-century Reformation, the church in communion with the Bishop of Rome used the term Catholic to distinguish itself from the various Protestant churches (15).

With over a billion members, the Roman Catholic Church is the world’s largest Christian church, according to Phayer. Its leader is the Pope, who wields supreme power alongside a council of Bishops. The mission of the church is to spread the gospel of Jesus.

Christ, performing the sacraments and exercising charity. It runs social programs and institutions all over the world, such as schools, universities, hospitals, missions, and shelters (930).

It has been active since the fourth century and teaches that it is “one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church” founded by Jesus Christ. Its Bishops are consecrated successors of his Apostles, and the Pope, as the successor of Saint Peter, has universal jurisdiction via twenty-one ecumenical councils. The church maintains that it is kept from falling into doctrinal error by the Holy Spirit. The Roman Catholic faith is founded on the Holy Bible and sacred traditions as interpreted by the church’s teachings, which are detailed in the Catholic Church’s catechism. Catholicism is a religion.

The Eucharist is the central component of the liturgy (938).

The Roman Catholic Church’s Doctrine

The Catholic Church, according to the Encyclopedia of Catholicism, believes that there is one external God who exists as a mutual indwelling of three persons, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, who comprise the Trinity. To Catholics, the term “church” refers to the people of God who abide in Christ and are fed by His body. Catholics also believe that the Catholic Church is the only place where all of the means of salvation are available. It also recognizes that the Holy Spirit can use Christian communities other than itself to bring people to salvation.

Even if a person has complete ignorance of the church and its teachings, he or she is saved. Christ instituted the seven sacraments, which are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance), Anointing of the Sick (formally extreme unction), Holy Orders, and Holy Matrimony, according to the Council of Trent. Sacraments are visible rituals that Catholics regard as God’s presence and an efficient channel of God’s grace (353).

The church teaches that the incarnation occurred when God became united with human nature through the power of the Holy Spirit when Christ was conceived in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary. As a result, Christ is thought to be both fully divine and fully human. Catholic piety includes prayers to the Virgin Mary, but

are distinct from God’s worship. The church holds Mary in high regard as a perpetual virgin and the Mother of God. Catholics believe in Mary’s immaculate conception without the stain of original sin, as well as her bodily assumption into heaven at the end of her life. Pope Pius ix defines this as dogma infallibly. Common Catholic prayers include the Rosary, the Hail Mary, the slave Regina, and the memorare (56).

Catholics may receive forgiveness for subsequent sins after baptism through the sacrament of reconciliation (confession). In this sacrament, a person confesses to a priest, who then gives advice and assigns a penance to be performed. Under penalty of excommunication, the priest is not permitted to reveal any sin or transgression.

Under the seal of confession, disclosure was heard. Immediately after death, each person’s soul will receive a specific judgment from God based on the actions of that person’s earthly life (383).

Denominations of Pentecostalism

According to Probert, Walter Microsoft Encarta, Pentecostal denominations date back to April 4, 1906, when members of the Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles California experienced the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. This denomination emphasized the ‘full gospel’or foursquare teaching. This term refers to Pentecostalism’s four fundamental beliefs: According to John 3:16, Jesus saves, baptizes with the Holy Spirit according to Acts 2:4, heals bodily according to James 5:15, and will return to receive those who have been saved according to Thessalonians 4:16-17.

Pentecostals are extremely influential.

adhere to the biblical teachings doctrine,

Believe in the Bible’s divine authority in matters of faith and take a literalist approach to its interpretation. They differ from other evangelicals, however, in that they reject Colossian’s teaching. They believe that spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and prophecy did not cease after the New Testament and are still in use today. This is the most basic requirement of Pentecostalism. The understanding of the baptism of the Holy Spirit is central to Pentecostal belief and practice. Unlike the Catholic belief, they believe that salvation is received by grace through faith in Jesus Christ and cannot be earned solely through good works.

Pentecostal Denominational Ordinances and Practices.

Pentecostals, like other Christian churches, believe that In the New Testament, Jesus established certain rituals or ceremonies as a pattern and command. Some Pentecostals refer to these as ordinances, while Roman Catholics, in particular, refer to them as sacraments. The ordinance of communion, on the other hand, is viewed as a direct command given by Jesus at the Last Supper. Some Pentecostals oppose the use of wine in communion and instead use grape juice. Pentecostal denominations can also be found in Africa and Nigeria.



The problem of this research study stems from the desire to determine whether or not there is any difference in the language of Christian religion due to its numerous denominations.


The goal of this study is to identify the language of Christian religion, with a focus on the Roman Catholic Church and Pentecostal denominations, in order to highlight the differences and similarities in their use of language.

This research accomplishes this goal by examining and analyzing their spoken, written, and written forms of language.


This work is unique in that it investigates and highlights the language of Christian religion. This is a register branch that has been neglected or researched with little or no effort. It will also serve as a stimulus and reference point for future language and Christian religion researchers.

This work will also serve as a means of enlightenment about how language is manipulated or used in the two Christian denominations, particularly during worship services.

Finally, it will help to situate the fact that minor differences can exist even within the language or register of Christian religion.


The work is limited to the literatures used in both the Catholic and Pentecostal denominations for ease of presentation. The language can be found in a variety of contexts, including religious newspapers and bulletins, radio tapes, audio and video compound discs, local publicity materials that promote church events, sermons preached in both denominations, and the Holy Bible, which is their sacred text.


During the service, the observation method was used. The study was conducted in three Catholic and three Pentecostal churches in the Enugu metropolis. These are the churches:

Saint Mary’s Catholic Church is located in Uwani, Enugu.
Christ the King Catholic Church, Enugu G.R.A.
3. Caritas University Chaplaincy in Enugu’s Amorji Nike.

Apostolic Faith Church on Nkponkiti Road in Enugu.

5. Assemblies of God, Isiagu Street, Enugu.

Winners Avenue, off Presidential Road, Living Faith Church,


Textbooks, journals, Christian newspapers, the Holy Bible, written sermons, and internet access are also used.


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